The technological arms race among professional equity traders threatens to destabilize U.S. markets and more should be done to limit their speed, according to New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman.
Schneiderman, whose office is examining privileges marketed to high-frequency firms such as enhanced data feeds, said Michael Lewis’s “Flash Boys” will help focus attention on the debate. The new book says speed traders are rigging the U.S. market to make tens of billions of dollars.
“I would not be quite as hyperbolic as that,” Schneiderman said in an interview with Erik Schatzker and Stephanie Ruhle on Bloomberg Television’s “Market Makers” program. “The race for speed is inherently dangerous. That leads people to take more and more chances to try and get an advantage, and that could lead to destabilization.”
Schneiderman’s inquiry threatens to disrupt a model that market regulators have permitted for years as high-speed trading and concerns about its influence have grown. Trading firms pay to place their systems in the same data centers as the exchanges, a practice known as co-location that lets them shave millionths of a second off transactions.
“We celebrate technology, but we have speed limits and airbags,” said Schneiderman, adding that the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission is taking a “hard look” at HFT. Reining in market excesses is important “because we have lost a lot of credibility,” he said. “A lot of investors do not have confidence in the market.”
Lewis, a columnist for Bloomberg View, is adding his voice to a debate that has obsessed the securities industry for almost a decade while only periodically surfacing in public via events such as the May 2010 flash crash, in which the Dow Jones Industrial Average posted an almost 1,000 point loss.
“The United States stock market, the most iconic market in global capitalism, is rigged,” Lewis, whose books “Liar’s Poker” and “The Big Short” highlighted Wall Street excesses, said during an interview on “60 Minutes” yesterday. “It’s crazy that it’s legal for some people to get advance news on prices and what investors are doing,” he said.
Everyone who owns equities is victimized by the practices, in which the fastest traders figure out which stocks investors plan to buy, purchase them first and then sell them back at a higher price, said Lewis.
High-frequency trading comprises a diverse set of software-driven strategies that have spread from U.S. equity markets to most developed countries as computer power grew and regulators tried to break the grip of centralized exchanges. They usually employ super-fast computers to post and cancel orders at rates measured in thousandths or even millionths of a second to capture price discrepancies on more than 50 public and private venues that make up the American equities market.
Firms using the tactics account for about half of share volume in the U.S., a statistic that shows their pervasiveness and hints at the obstacles faced by proposals to rein them in. Exchanges rely on HFTs for profits as well as liquidity, with electronic market makers all but eliminating the old system of human floor traders who oversaw the buying and selling of equities. While critics such as Lewis see a Wall Street plot, proponents say the new system is faster and cheaper.
In the U.S., the biggest high-speed traders include Virtu Financial Inc., which filed in March to sell shares to the public. Bats Global Markets Inc., the Lenexa, Kansas-based equity exchange that merged with Direct Edge Holdings LLC this year, was founded by a high-frequency trader.
“We believe Lewis’s book can have a big impact on complex market-structure issues that have been simmering for years,” Joe Saluzzi, co-head of equity trading at Themis Trading LLC and a frequent critic of the status quo in markets, said before the “60 Minutes” interview was broadcast. “Hopefully this type of publicity will finally force regulators to take action on issues that they’ve been sitting on for way too long.”
One of the heroes of Lewis’s book is Brad Katsuyama, who left Royal Bank of Canada in 2012 to form a new market, IEX Group Inc., along with other former traders from the Toronto-based bank. IEX, which doesn’t allow brokers to own stakes, has investors including David Einhorn’s Greenlight Capital Inc. as shareholders. Goldman Sachs Group Inc. is the biggest broker on the platform, which started trading in October and was established to minimize the influence of predatory strategies.
IEX was established partly to address concern that technology advances and fragmentation have made the $22 trillion U.S. equity market too fast and opaque. The platform, a dark pool with ambitions to officially become an exchange, imposes a delay of 350 microseconds, or 350 millionths of a second, on orders -- enough to curb the fastest trading firms. IEX aims for greater transparency by making its trading rules available for public review, unlike some other electronic venues.
Lewis said on “60 Minutes” yesterday: “I spoke to dozens of investors, big investors, famous investors who said that, ‘When Brad Katsuyama came into my office and laid out to me how the market was rigged, my jaw hit the floor. I mean, I knew something was wrong. I just didn’t know what it was and no one had told us.’”
“We completely disagree with allegations that the U.S. equity market is rigged,” Bats President Bill O’Brien said in an e-mail yesterday. “While we should never stop trying to improve our market structure, it is unfair and irresponsible to accuse people simply because they use technology and enhance competition. This has helped make our market the most competitive and liquid in the world, greatly benefiting individual investors.”
Traders rushed to defend their strategies.
“While there are bad actors in every industry, the game is not rigged in the favor of professional traders who employ HFT to execute their strategies,” Peter Nabicht, senior adviser to the Modern Markets Initiative trade group and former chief technology officer at high-frequency-trading firm Allston Trading, wrote in an e-mail.
“Rather, they work hard to compete with each other to bring liquidity to the markets, benefiting average investors,” he added. “Continued debate about the next evolution of market structure is needed and welcome, provided the debate is based on fact and resulting actions are reasoned, ensuring average investors continue to benefit from the transparency and efficiency enabled by inevitable technological advances.”
The practice of selling enhanced access to brokers accelerated as American exchanges evolved from member-owned firms amid a flurry of regulation and computer advances in the 1990s. Among other changes, the government-mandated compression of stock price increments to pennies from eighths and sixteenths of a dollar, a process known as decimalization, squeezed profits for market makers and specialists that had overseen stock trades.
Faced with the need to maintain liquidity on electronic platforms where profits were too fleeting for humans to capture, exchanges encouraged computerized firms to post orders for investors to trade against. Co-location and customized data feeds developed alongside the hodgepodge of fees and rebates that market operators use to keep speed traders coming back.
“Part of what you’re seeing here is people not understanding it, because they either haven’t taken the time or haven’t dug in,” Larry Leibowitz, the former chief operating officer of NYSE Euronext, said in a March 25 conference call with analysts arranged by Sandler O’Neill & Partners LP. “It’s the responsibility of regulators to show leadership to show, ‘We looked at these issues, and we think these are fair. These are areas we want to improve and fine tune.’”
Market-maker privileges have always been a hallmark of equity trading, starting with the sale of seats on the floors of exchanges. LaBranche & Co., created in January 1924, went public in August 1999. In papers prepared for its IPO, LaBranche disclosed that it regularly turned about 71 percent of sales into profit before paying its managing directors. Earnings before that expense climbed at least 25 percent every year from 1995 through 1999.
Results like those, as well as concern that NYSE and Nasdaq were too powerful, helped spur reforms since 2000 such as decimalization and a broader overhaul known as Regulation NMS that was aimed at lowering barriers to trading. Through rules mandating that any order for stock be routed to whoever in the country was transmitting the best offer to buy or sell, regulators hoped competition among a much larger pool of de facto market makers would lower costs for investors.
That happened. Buying 1,000 shares of AT&T before 1975 would have cost $800 in commissions, Charles Schwab, who founded discount brokerage Charles Schwab Corp., told the U.S. Senate in February 2000. That’s roughly 100 times more than the fees paid by some retail stock-pickers today.
Federal regulators have asked for years whether new restrictions were needed. In February 2012, Daniel Hawke, the head of the SEC’s market-abuse unit, said the agency was examining practices such as co-location and rebates that exchanges pay to spur transactions. Last year, the CFTC announced a review of speed trading and sought industry input.
SEC spokesman John Nester declined to comment on Lewis’ book. He said the agency has undertaken a wide-ranging review of equity market structure.
The regulator is “conducting a comprehensive data-driven analysis of a range of market structure issues, including high-frequency trading practices and their impact on the fairness, efficiency and integrity of our markets,” Nester said.
SEC Commissioner Daniel Gallagher said on March 28 that individuals are concerned that high-frequency traders detract from fairness in the marketplace.
“The problem with high-frequency trading right now is that there’s a perception that for the little guy, the markets aren’t fair,” Gallagher told CNBC during an interview. “That perception to me is a reality. It’s something we need to address.”
To contact the editors responsible for this story: Chris Nagi at firstname.lastname@example.org Jeff Sutherland