U.S. List Helps Heirs Track Nazi-Loot Art in Munich Cache

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Photographer: Johannes Simon/Getty Images

A press conference regarding the seizure in 2011 of more than 1,400 paintings from Cornelius Gurlitt on November 5, 2013 in Augsburg, Germany. According to media reports that broke the story on October 3, Gurlitt's father, Hildebrand Gurlitt, was an art dealer who oversaw the confiscations of what the Nazis termed 'degenerate art' in the 1930s and 1940s, mostly from Jewish collectors. Cornelius, the son, now in his 80s, reportedly hoarded the works, which include paintings by Henri Matisse, Marc Chagall, Emil Nolde and Max Liebermann, among many others, that have been missing since World War II. The works are now at a customs warehouse outside Munich and have an estimated value of EUR one billion.

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Photographer: Johannes Simon/Getty Images

A press conference regarding the seizure in 2011 of more than 1,400 paintings from Cornelius Gurlitt on November 5, 2013 in Augsburg, Germany. According to media reports that broke the story on October 3, Gurlitt's father, Hildebrand Gurlitt, was an art dealer who oversaw the confiscations of what the Nazis termed 'degenerate art' in the 1930s and 1940s, mostly from Jewish collectors. Cornelius, the son, now in his 80s, reportedly hoarded the works, which include paintings by Henri Matisse, Marc Chagall, Emil Nolde and Max Liebermann, among many others, that have been missing since World War II. The works are now at a customs warehouse outside Munich and have an estimated value of EUR one billion. Close

A press conference regarding the seizure in 2011 of more than 1,400 paintings from Cornelius Gurlitt on November 5,... Read More

Photographer: Christof Stache/Otto Dix/AFP/Getty Images

A reproduction of an unknown self-portrait by German painter Otto Dix presented during a news conference on November 5, 2013 in Augsburg, southern Germany, on the discovery of more than 1,400 paintings including works by Picasso and Matisse looted by the Nazis. The prosecutors spoke to the press a day after German weekly Focus revealed police came upon the paintings during a 2011 search in an apartment belonging to Cornelius Gurlitt, the octogenarian son of art collector Hildebrand Gurlitt. Close

A reproduction of an unknown self-portrait by German painter Otto Dix presented during a news conference on November... Read More

Source: Nuance Communications, Inc./Holocaust Art Restitution Project via Bloomberg

A page from an inventory of Hildebrand Gurlitt's art collection in 1950, found by researchers at the Holocaust Art Restitution Project. The U.S. military missed a chance to seize the works 63 years ago, the document shows. Close

A page from an inventory of Hildebrand Gurlitt's art collection in 1950, found by researchers at the Holocaust Art... Read More

Photographer: Johannes Simon/Getty Images

Art historian Meike Hoffmann speaking to the media regarding the seizure in 2011 of more than 1,400 paintings from Cornelius Gurlitt on November 5, 2013 in Augsburg, Germany. According to media reports that broke the story on October 3, Gurlitt's father, Hildebrand Gurlitt, was an art dealer who oversaw the confiscations of what the Nazis termed 'degenerate art' in the 1930s and 1940s, mostly from Jewish collectors. Cornelius, the son, now in his 80s, reportedly hoarded the works, which include paintings by Henri Matisse, Marc Chagall, Emil Nolde and Max Liebermann, among many others, that have been missing since World War II. The works are now at a customs warehouse outside Munich and have an estimated value of EUR one billion. Close

Art historian Meike Hoffmann speaking to the media regarding the seizure in 2011 of more than 1,400 paintings from... Read More

Photographer: Lennart Preiss/Getty Images

A newspaper billboard announcing "Billion Euro Art Treasure Discovered In Schwabing (a section of Munich)" in front of the apartment building that is residence of Cornelius Gurlitt, where according to media reports customs agents seized more than 1,400 paintings that had been confiscated by the Nazis in the 1930s and 40s, on November 4, 2013 in Munich, Germany. Gurlitt's father Hildebrand Gurlitt was an art dealer who oversaw the confiscations of what the Nazis termed "degenerate art", and the son, now in his 80s, reportedly hoarded the works, which include paintings by Henri Matisse, Emil Nolde and Max Liebermann. The works are now at a customs warehouse outside Munich and have an estimated value of EUR one billion. Close

A newspaper billboard announcing "Billion Euro Art Treasure Discovered In Schwabing (a section of Munich)" in front... Read More

A list of art compiled by U.S. troops in 1950 may help Jewish heirs identify works looted by the Nazis that wound up in a squalid Munich apartment, researchers from the Holocaust Art Restitution Project said.

U.S. troops vetted Hildebrand Gurlitt’s collection -- including works by Max Beckmann and Edgar Degas -- and handed it back to him 63 years ago, according to a custody receipt that Marc Masurovsky and Willi Korte, researchers at HARP, found yesterday in the National Archive in Washington.

The artworks, listed over five pages, were held by the allies and returned in 1950. They may have formed the basis of the collection of Cornelius Gurlitt, Hildebrand’s son. Prosecutors said they won’t publish an inventory of the 1,400 works seized in Gurlitt’s Munich apartment. Groups representing the heirs of Jewish victims of Nazi persecution protested the secrecy.

“A great many people don’t know what is missing from their collections,” Wesley Fisher, Director of Research at the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany, said by telephone from New York. “This secrecy is not going to help families. Many of the items that clearly seem to have come from France may have been seized or lost in forced sales.”

Authorities seized Cornelius Gurlitt’s cache of more than 1,400 paintings, lithographs, drawings and prints as part of an investigation on suspicion of tax evasion in a three-day operation in March 2012.

Picasso, Kokoschka

It took 1½ years to announce the hoard. Though refusing to provide a list of the works, the Augsburg prosecutor said it includes works by Beckmann, Pablo Picasso, Oskar Kokoschka, Franz Marc, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Max Liebermann.

The German government is examining ways to help Augsburg prosecutors publish details of at least those works that are known to have been looted, said Steffen Seibert, Chancellor Angela Merkel’s chief spokesman. He said government provenance researchers are helping with law enforcers’ enquiries.

Seibert said the government is committed to finding just and fair solutions to the problem of looted art in private as well as public collections.

Paintings on the five-page list from the National Archive include Beckmann’s “Lion Tamer,” which Cornelius Gurlitt sold via Kunsthaus Lempertz in Cologne in 2011 after settling with the heirs of Alfred Flechtheim, a Jewish dealer persecuted by the Nazis and forced to flee Germany.

Further Works

“Against the backdrop of the current revelations about the Gurlitt collection, the Flechtheim heirs are looking into whether there are any further works that used to be in Flechtheim’s possession in the seized trove of paintings,” the heirs said in a statement sent by e-mail by the lawyer Markus Stoetzel.

The list obtained by Korte and Masurovsky also includes a Degas nude, several Beckmann oils, two Courbet paintings and an Otto Dix self-portrait -- probably the same one investigators projected onto a screen at a news conference in Augsburg.

Other works in Gurlitt’s collection in 1950 included paintings by Emil Nolde, Hans Thoma, Otto Mueller, George Grosz, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, August Macke and the Italian painter Guardi.

“He liked Old Masters, German expressionists and French 19th-century paintings,” Masurovsky said. “Gurlitt had a wide range.”

Duress Sales

Some works from the Munich stash were seized by the Nazis from German museums, while others may have been sold by Jewish owners under duress, said Meike Hoffmann, the investigating art expert. She declined to comment on estimates valuing the hoard at 1 billion euros ($1.35 billion).

Masurovsky said Gurlitt regularly acquired works at the Jeu de Paume in Paris, where the Nazis assembled art looted from French Jewish families during the occupation. Under agreements between the Allies, art looted from France was returned to the French government after World War II.

“I am wondering when the German government is going to call France about returning some of this,” Masurovsky said. “There are clearly some works in the collection that came from France.”

Hildebrand Gurlitt (1895-1956) was one of just four art dealers permitted by the Nazi authorities to sell artworks seized as “degenerate” from German museums from the end of 1938 to 1941.

Though they were instructed to sell them abroad for hard currency, the four passed many on to fellow German dealers or kept them for themselves, according to the Free University’s “Degenerate Art” website.

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To contact the reporter on this story: Catherine Hickley in Berlin at chickley@bloomberg.net.

To contact the editor responsible for this story: Manuela Hoelterhoff at mhoelterhoff@bloomberg.net.

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