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Timothy Kaldas

Egyptians Are No Better Off Than Before the Arab Spring

Despite improved macroeconomic indicators, the demands for bread, freedom and social justice remain elusive for most.

Where’s his bread, freedom and social justice?

Where’s his bread, freedom and social justice?

Photographer: Ed Giles/Getty Images Europe

Nine years ago today, the Egyptian people toppled Hosni Mubarak, their ruler of nearly 30 years. What had begun as protests against police brutality drew inspiration from the success of anti-regime demonstrations in Tunisia, and escalated into demands for the fall of the dictatorship. Among the most popular chants in Cairo’s Tahrir Square and other protest venues was the demand for “bread, freedom and social justice.”

Nearly a decade on, despite positive movement in several macro-economic indicators, those demands are just as elusive as ever.