Throughout Australia’s industrial heartland, factories are closing. About an eight-minute car ride from the center of Melbourne, a General Motors plant that in 1948 produced the first automobile wholly made in the country is scheduled to shut for good in 2017, victim of a rising Australian dollar that caused labor costs to nearly double from 2001 to 2011. Toyota and Ford factories are set to close within two years, leaving Australia without any domestic auto production. Down the road from the GM plant is a facility operated by Boeing. In 2010 it sold the plant’s equipment for making metal aircraft parts to Mahindra & Mahindra, an Indian company that’s shipping the machinery to Bengaluru. Last year, Alcoa closed a nearby aluminum smelter.
Until recently the sad decline of heavy industry had little impact on the country’s highflying economy. Australia’s factories were closing, but its mines were booming. Chinese demand for Australian iron ore and other resources kept the economy humming. The country hadn’t suffered through a recession since the early 1990s.