How Your Cashmere Is Made

One of the rarest natural fibers in the world, cashmere's not a wool but a hair, which accounts for its unmistakable feel. With fast-fashion chains such as Uniqlo and Joe Fresh selling discount product in bulk, it's hard to tell the good stuff from the junk

Raw, cleaned cashmere from Springtide Farm in Bremen, Maine. The 70 goats on this family-run farm are foragers feeding on tree shoots, weeds, and other undergrowth.

Photographer: Joanna McClure for Bloomberg Pursuits

Where It’s From

Most cashmere comes from goats in the Gobi Desert, which stretches from Northern China into Mongolia. Beneath the animals’ coarse hair lies an undercoat of superfine fibers concentrated on the underbelly. In May and June, when the goats molt, local workers comb the belly hair, sort it by hand, and send it to a dehairing facility (usually in China) to be cleaned and refined. Then it’s baled and delivered to Europe, where it’s spun into fine yarn and sold to designers for roughly $114 a pound. With adequate supplies of top-notch raw materials becoming scarce in Asia, Afghanistan has become an unlikely exporter: The country is rich in unadulterated product. As China increasingly blends different qualities of cashmere to achieve volume, Afghan goat farmers are filling the demand for completely pure knits.

The Cashmere Goat

The cashmere goat

Illustration: Rosie Toole for Bloomberg Pursuits

Origin: Northern China, Mongolia, Afghanistan
Average weight: females, 88 lbs.; males, 132 lbs.
Typical yield of fiber from one goat: 180g to 250g (6 oz. to 9 oz.)

Buying Tips

1. Check the Weight
A garment made of two plies, meaning it was knitted from double strands of yarn, or more, will often be longer-lasting. The heavier the sweater, the warmer (and more expensive) it will be.

2. Beware of Pilling
Premium cashmere is made from the long hairs of goats—and it’s combed, never sheared. Shearing yields shorter fibers that are prone to pilling. Before you buy, rub the surface of a garment with the palm of your hand and see if fibers begin to roll up and/or shed. This is an indication that there’s excess short-fiber content.

3. Look for a Tight Knit
Durable cashmere is tightly woven. If the construction feels loose, the garment will lose its shape quickly. Gauge quality by holding a piece up to the light—if you can see through, it probably won’t be wearable for longer than a season.

4. Consider the Color
Heavily dyed fiber loses some of its softness. Chinese white from Inner Mongolia is regarded as the finest-quality cashmere because it’s not subjected to coloring or bleach. Outer Mongolia is developing a niche in natural cashmere in camel and brown hues.

5. Read the Label
A garment labeled 70 percent cashmere/30 percent wool frequently contains no more than 5 percent cashmere. The U.S. Federal Trade Commission mandates only pure cashmere sweaters can be labeled “100 Percent Cashmere.” If that’s not indicated on the garment, move along.

How to Wash It

Step-by-step guidance from knitwear designer Margaret O’Leary

  1. Launder cashmere at home, always inside out. Washing adds moisture back to the fabric; dry cleaning stiffens it.
  2. Use the delicate cycle. Two teaspoons of The Laundress Wool & Cashmere Shampoo is enough.
  3. Put your garment in the dryer for five minutes on the coolest setting. Then spread it on a flat towel to air dry.4.
  4. Never hang anything made of cashmere. Hangers will stretch the fibers.

Where to Get It

Iris von Arnim

Source: Iris von Arnim

Von Arnim was the first to introduce luxury cashmere to Germany back in 1980. Her designs, such as double-faced winter coats and Bauhaus-inspired printed scarves, have a hint of the unexpected. Amiraplatz 1 80333, +49 89 23 88 55 88,

New York City
Christopher Fischer

Source: Christopher Fischer

Fischer uses traditional Scottish knitting techniques and the finest yarns from Inner Mongolia. The cashmere comes in a range of colors and styles, from navy pocketed dresses to cream-colored baby blankets. 1225 Madison Ave., 212-831-8880;

Brunello Cucinelli

Source: Brunello Cucinelli

Cucinelli is known for his drapey cardigans that retail for $1,500. If the price sounds steep, it’s because he keeps his business local; 100 percent of Cucinelli’s clothing is made in Italy. 217 Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré, +33 1 49 26 00 81;

New Delhi
Kashmir Loom

Source: Kashmir Loom

This small company has hand-woven goods from the hairs of Kashmir goats for European fashion houses for decades. It opened a store in July, where you’ll find gorgeous scarves and pashminas. 21 Nizamuddin East, +91 11 2435 8683,

Massimo Alba

Photographer: Evan Ortiz for Bloomberg Pursuits

Alba’s lightweight yet warm sweaters are hand-dyed in a formula that’s so eco-friendly, he says you can drink the water at the end of the process. His secret house weave yields a chic, faded-out color. Via Brera, 8, 20121, +39 02 7209 3420;

Pringle of Scotland

Source: Pringle of Scotland

Scotland’s limestone-rich water makes for extra-soft, sturdy cashmere. Pringle has been a mainstay in Queen Elizabeth’s wardrobe since 1947, thanks to its classic argyle twinsets and crisp knee-length skirts. 94 Mount St., +44 20 30 11 00 31;

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