On Hoover's Attempts to Rescue the Banks: Echoes

In 1929, there were nearly 25,000 banks in the U.S. Many European nations had fewer than 100. More than 90 percent of U.S. banks served small towns and rural districts, held state charters and hadn't joined the Federal Reserve System (which was mandatory for nationally chartered banks). Thus they couldn't seek loans from the Fed to support liquidity.

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