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Photographer: Kiyoshi Ota/Bloomberg
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Not so long ago, homebuyers, entrepreneurs and investors went hat-in-hand to the bank to apply for a mortgage, small-business credit line or brokerage account. Financial technology, or fintech, is rapidly changing all that by making it easier to save, borrow and invest online or with a mobile device, without ever dealing with a traditional bank. For old-fashioned banks and money managers, fintech is causing dramatic upheaval, possibly the most since mainframe computers first whirred to life on Wall Street in the 1960s. It’s caught the attention of regulators, consumer advocates and industry veterans — some cheering, others booing, but all wondering: Will a digitized financial-services industry mean lower costs, more innovation and greater access for all? Or will the dominant players ultimately stay on top, with their hefty fees, commissions and compensation, as well as their gatekeeper roles, largely intact?

Fintech has unsettled just about every corner of global finance. Traditional bankers at first scoffed when the arrivistes promised to reinvent their business. Then services such as Venmo, the person-to-person money-transfer app owned by PayPal Holdings Inc., started displacing established bank products, so big banks are now joining the revolution. Dozens have teamed up to offer Zelle, a Venmo-like app. Goldman Sachs Group Inc. rolled out Marcus, a mobile-banking app that now claims 1.5 million customers. Industry-friendly regulators in the U.S., U.K. and Singapore have set up or proposed so-called sandbox programs to help fintech firms develop new offerings with lighter oversight. European Union banks as of 2018 had to give qualified fintech firms access to account data, such as credit-card transactions, if bank clients requested it. Investors are piling in: Adyen NV, a Dutch startup that processes Uber, Netflix and Spotify payments, joined 28 other companies in the pantheon of fintech unicorns — those with valuations of $1 billion or more — when it raised $1.1 billion in a June 2018 stock offering. All this is less welcome news for those in old-line financial jobs. Vikram Pandit, a former Citigroup Inc. chief executive officer, has said that technology could replace about 30 percent of banking jobs by 2023.