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Cocaine, Payola: How Maduro Keeps Top Military Brass in Line

  • Armed forces leaders know that ‘if Maduro falls, they fall’
  • Juan Guaido faces uphill climb to persuade them to defect
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Juan Guaido and Nicolas Maduro both say they are president of Venezuela.(Source: Bloomberg)
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Vladimir Padrino is Venezuela’s defense minister. Gerardo Rangel is a major general in the army. Nestor Reverol is a former National Guard commander who oversees the Interior and Justice Ministry.

They are also, according to the U.S. Treasury, drug runners and graft-schemers who operate within the criminal enterprise that is the Nicolas Maduro regime.