Donald Trump’s November victory owed little to the largest U.S. cities, which voted against him in force. So far in Trump’s presidency, there’s no sign of warming relations. Elected leaders in Chicago, New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Seattle and other major cities have vowed to stand up to Trump by continuing to withhold their cooperation from U.S. immigration-enforcement efforts. Trump signed an executive order that threatens to block federal funding to such "sanctuary cities," setting up a state-federal legal battle that lost no time in reaching the courts.
1. What’s a sanctuary city?
While there’s no official legal definition, the label generally applies to cities (or counties, or other jurisdictions) that declare they won’t assist in immigration enforcement and deportation efforts. The phrase has been used for decades by county and municipal governments that have policies offering some level of welcome to undocumented aliens. These policies were introduced in the 1980s in response to a movement of hundreds of U.S. churches and synagogues to provide safe haven for Central Americans fleeing civil conflicts. One of the first big cities to join was Los Angeles, where the city council in 1985 voted to oppose the deportation of law-abiding Central American refugees. Other early adopters were Berkeley, California; Cambridge and Brookline, Massachusetts; Madison, Wisconsin; and Takoma Park, Maryland.
2. Does it offer genuine sanctuary?
No. No jurisdiction is beyond the reach of federal immigration authorities. Policies in sanctuary cities, however, can make it less likely that an undocumented alien will come to the attention of federal officials or wind up in their hands. Many sanctuary cities refuse to honor "ICE detainers," or requests from the U.S. Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement to hold someone in custody for an additional 48 hours.
3. How many sanctuary cities are there?
There’s no definitive list. The San Francisco-based Immigrant Legal Resource Center, which supports the sanctuary movement, says at least 635 U.S. counties -- more than one in five -- refuse to hold people in jail on federal detainer requests, while at least 53 counties, or about 2 percent of the total, prohibit using local resources to assist federal immigration enforcement. The Trump administration said 118 local governments refused to comply with detainer requests during the week of Jan. 28.
4. What is Trump’s objection?
He says sanctuary cities "are not safe" and "breed crime," though there’s little evidence of a correlation. Trump cites anecdotes such as the fatal shooting of a 32-year old woman in San Francisco in July 2015, allegedly by an undocumented immigrant with a criminal record. (The accused, a Mexican national named Juan Francisco Lopez-Sanchez, is going on trial for murder.) Trump’s order cites a law, enacted in 1996 under President Bill Clinton, prohibiting local governments from telling employees not to share information with the Immigration and Naturalization Service.
5. What is Trump doing about it?
His Jan. 25 executive order directs the withholding of federal grants, "except as deemed necessary for law enforcement purposes," from jurisdictions that refuse to cooperate with federal immigration officials. It doesn’t specify which sources of federal funding will be targeted, though the likely options include money distributed by the departments of Justice and Homeland Security. Trump also ordered that, every week, the government "make public a comprehensive list of criminal actions committed by aliens and any jurisdiction that ignored or otherwise failed to honor any detainers with respect to such aliens."
6. How much money could be at stake?
At the moment, guesses range from tens of millions to billions of dollars, depending on what funding sources Trump targets and whether courts permit him. Fitch Ratings says the cuts aren’t likely to be steep enough to affect the bond ratings of sanctuary cities, since federal grants mainly flow to specific programs -- like Temporary Assistance for Needy Families and school-lunch subsidies -- rather than to general government operations. Fitch noted, "Much federal funding to the municipal level flows to states, counties and school districts rather than cities themselves."
7. Do sanctuary cities oppose federal immigration laws?
Not necessarily. Generally speaking, leaders of sanctuary cities just don’t want their local law enforcement personnel to be active participants in enforcing those federal statutes. Requiring local police to inquire into immigration status, or to detain a suspected undocumented immigrant who would otherwise be free to go, would spur racial profiling and discourage immigrants from reporting crimes or seeking needed services, according to this line of argument. It’s "not any local jurisdiction’s job nor legal obligation to carry out the federal government’s immigration enforcement work," as the ILRC puts it.
8. What do those cities do with undocumented immigrants?
The ILRC identifies seven different types of "sanctuary" policies. They include barring federal agents from secured areas of local jails without a warrant and prohibiting local officers from participating in joint patrols with federal agents. Adherence to the seven practices varies. Only two counties -- Cook in Illinois, which includes Chicago, and San Francisco County in California -- enforce all seven policies and thus offer the "most comprehensive protections" for undocumented immigrants, according to the ILRC.
9. How can they do this?
10. What’s been the response to Trump’s order?
San Francisco filed a lawsuit that got a federal judge to temporarily block Trump’s threatened cuts to funding. The mayors of New York and Boston, among other city leaders, spoke out in continued support of their sanctuary city protections. New York State Attorney General Eric Schneiderman said federal grant money must be "directly related to the program at issue" and cannot be "cut off in a coercive way." But Trump’s threat did have an impact in at least one place: The mayor of Miami-Dade County ordered the city’s jails to comply with federal requests going forward.
The Reference Shelf
- Trump’s executive order.
- A QuickTake Q&A on Trump’s fast start using executive orders and memoranda.
- A QuickTake explainer on refugees, political asylum and Trump.
- "Searching for Sanctuary," a report by the Immigrant Legal Resource Center.
- Texas is battling its own sanctuary cities.
- Sanctuary cities are safe, thanks to conservatives, Bloomberg View columnist Noah Feldman writes.