What Do Apple and Singapore Airlines Have in Common? Quantum Strategy

Photograph by Munshi Ahmed/Bloomberg

For over three decades, Michael Porter’s seminal work on corporate strategy has dominated management thinking, dictating that companies make clear choices among generic strategies: cost leadership vs. differentiation, or broad appeal vs. niche market. To align resources, organizations then design, staff, and create policies to support their chosen strategy. The idea that a company could achieve differentiation through innovation, service excellence, or other value-adding features, as well as cost leadership (compared with the company’s peer group), has been alien to this thinking.

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