Toyota, GM End Long, Costly Marriage

When Toyota Motor (TM) and General Motors opened their joint venture in Fremont, Calif., 25 years ago, it was seen as a smart marriage. Toyota would learn the cultural nuance of managing American workers, get to know U.S. parts makers, and gain political favor by saving a doomed domestic plant. GM tried to show that it was getting in step with surging Japanese competition by learning Toyota's secrets to efficiency and quality. But now the marriage is breaking up, and Toyota is stuck with a problem child.

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