Edward Tian vividly remembers how, as a five-year-old in Shenyang in 1968, he was not allowed to wear one of the Mao badges popular during the Cultural Revolution. He came from a family that had been wealthy intellectuals before the founding of the People's Republic of China. So he and the grandparents who raised him while his mother and father worked as scientists in China's western deserts were ostracized. Red Guards burned the family library. Those experiences "gave me a feeling of strong rebellion," says Tian.
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