Behind Low Payroll Costs: Cheap Female Labor

"The win-win in slowing labor costs" (Business Outlook, May 17) discusses a number of reasons why labor costs have not increased, even with unusually low unemployment. Have you considered the effect of the increasing participation of female labor in the work force? Employers are readily accepting well-educated women.

Unfortunately, most women draw less salary than their male counterparts at all income levels. And many want to, or are willing to, work part-time, which has fewer fringe benefits. Not only do women's lower labor costs bring down the average cost of labor, but male labor costs are kept down as a result of competing against cheaper female labor.

Edward A. Bryant

New York

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