Turning A `Culture Of Protest'...Into Black Led Local Democracy

Chris Ngcobo first fanned civil disobedience as a 13-year-old, handing out banned antiapartheid pamphlets in the angry black township of Soweto. As a teenager, he saw his family's three-room house torn apart by white police looking for weapons and lost two older brothers to South African army raids on their African National Congress guerrilla units. By his 20s, Ngcobo had been expelled from the University of Fort Hare and, in 1986, sentenced to prison for leading municipal rent boycotts in the mass action campaign that became the ANC's unstoppable weapon against white minority rule. "We created a situation of ungovernability," he says. "We did not know that at some time we would have to fight this ourselves."

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