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July 1 (Bloomberg) -- On "Hot Shots" Bloomberg's Mark Crumpton reports on today's most compelling images. (Source: Bloomberg)

Thank you for joining us.

Thank you for having me.

In the report, you and your colleague right "over the past three decades the human capital of the employee black workforce has increased dramatically.

You go on to write that "black workers every age and education level are less likely to be in a good job today than they were in 1979." what happened?

What happened indeed.

That is exactly what we found.

We see that the share of black workers with at least a four- year degree has gone up about 10%, to about 25%, so, more than a doubling.

We also see that during the same time gdp per person in the nine states has grown by about 70%, so you the context of these two things we see that job quality for black workers has basically stagnated.

Workers in 1979 -- it is this same share of workers.

How has the increase in the median age of the african- american workforce affected the ability to find good jobs?

Those jobs are defined as pain at least $19 per hour with an employer-provided health insurance and retirement plan?


At the same time that black workers are finishing school, getting their degree, they are also a aging, the median age of a black worker in 1979 was 33, and now it is 39. economists will tell you workforce upgrades, more education, becoming older, they should be rewarded with rewards in the labor market, and we are seeing that has not happened.

What was the gender breakdown?

How did black men and women fare from 1979 to 2011? not too surprisingly, black women have had an increase.

In 1979, they were less likely to have a four year degree, and in 2011 they are more likely.

The reason overall it has been constant is the share of men has seen declines, while women have increased, but women are still likely to -- less likely to have a good job than black men.

Why have the educational gains made by the black workforce not had more of an impact?

There are a number of reasons we have seen these kinds of declines, and we think the main reason is this huge loss in bargaining power of workers, and since black workers are disproportionately at the bottom in the middle of the labor market, they will be this portion of the affected by this loss of bargaining power and we see this manifested in several ways.

The minimum wage is at historic lows, we see large drops in unionization and manufacturing.

You spoke about unions.

Your report includes a policy simulation of the black unionization rate.

What effect would an increase in that rate have on the share of good jobs versus bad jobs?

We do an increase where we increase the black teens asian rate by 10 percentage points -- where we increase the black unionization rate by about 10 percentage point, and the same exercise with college attainment, and we see that for the overall black workforce an increase we see a bigger increase in good jobs for a union increase than a college attainment increase.

We also know it will be easier to get black workers on the job now into a union than a generation of black workers through college.

What effect does the overall cost -- the overall economy's failure to create the jobs have on the african-american workforce?

What we have seen has been for the total workforce, but at lower levels.

There is been a loss in job quality across the board, and since black workers at his portion of the at the bottom and the middle, and that hurt the overall economy will hurt them.

We had about one minute left.

What needs to occur to reverse the trends outlined in your report, and what role should the american increase -- african-american community play?

You look at the policy simulations -- universal health insurance, retirement, it is a huge impact on the share of black workers with good jobs, but i do not think this is a case where you could blame black workers, because they have done what they are supposed to do.

Aaron getting their degrees, but they are not being rewarded, so a good question to asked his

This text has been automatically generated. It may not be 100% accurate.


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