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DIBYANGSHU SARKAR/AFP/Getty Images
Chairman, Indian Space Research Organization
In the last decade, India has become the new low-cost destination for satellite launches, hurling satellites into orbit for a tenth of the cost of European and U.S. launches. But under Madhavan's control, ISRO has supercharged its ambitions, from satellite launches to a manned lunar mission. He does all of that on a budget that's a tiny fraction of most space programs internationally.