What drives innovation at the national level? Not one factor, but many. To create the Bloomberg Innovation Quotient, we scored countries on seven variables for each of 10 years.
Countries were included only if there were sufficient data for at least five of the seven factors. We then averaged the scores to determine each country's overall rank.
Some of the factors, such as patent activity, are obvious gauges, while others are less so. Tertiary efficiency, for example, measures post-secondary education along with concentration on the sciences. Countries had to be ranked for at least five of the 10 years to qualify. Full descriptions of the factors can be found on the last slide.
N/A indicates that the country lacked sufficient data for five or more years. However, that factor might have been used to calculate a country's score in specific years. The final universe consisted of 81 countries or sovereign regions.
Factors and weightings are presented on the final slide.