Washington ranked as the most innovative state, based on these factors:
STEM professionals as a percentage of state population:
Science and tech degree holders as a percentage of state population:
Utility patents granted as a percentage of U.S. total:
State government R&D spending as a percentage of U.S. total:
Gross state product per employed person:
Three-year change in productivity:
Public tech companies as a percentage of all public companies based in the state:
Check out our data visualization of the most innovative states.
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METHODOLOGY: Bloomberg ranked the U.S. states and the District of Columbia on innovation. Six factors were considered. States were ranked on a scale of zero to 100 in each, and received an overall score that was an average of the six. Because productivity consisted of two subfactors, each was weighted 50%. The factors:
1. Number of professionals in science, technology, engineering and mathematics as a percentage of the state's population
2. Science and technology degree holders as a percentage of the state's population
3. Utility patents (patents for inventions) granted by the state of origin as a percentage of the U.S. total
4. R&D intensity: State government research and development expenditure as a percentage of the U.S. total
5. Productivity: (1) Gross state product per employed person; and (2) three-year change in productivity
6. Public technology companies — in industries such as aerospace and defense, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, renewable energy, technology — as a percentage of all public firms domiciled in the state. A dash indicates that there are no public technology companies in the state.