Hollande Blames Islamic State for ‘Act of War’ in Paris Killings

French president Francois Hollande speaks in Paris on November 14, 2015, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late Friday which left more than 120 people dead. Hollande on Saturday blamed the Islamic State group for the attacks in Paris that left at least 128 dead, calling them an "act of war". AFP PHOTO / POOL / STEPHANE DE SAKUTIN (Photo credit should read STEPHANE DE SAKUTIN/AFP/Getty Images)
  • President says 127 killed in coordinated attacks in capital
  • France declares state of emergency, closes tourist sites

French President Francois Hollande called the attacks that left at least 127 people dead in Paris an “act of war” by Islamic State as officials start to investigate how the city could have fallen victim to another terror assault so soon after the Charlie Hebdo killings.

Hollande mobilized the military, declared a national state of emergency and ordered cultural and tourist sites closed after seven locations were attacked Friday night in rapid succession by assailants armed with Kalashnikov rifles and suicide belts.

French soldiers patrol the area at the foot of the Eiffel Tower
French soldiers patrol the area at the foot of the Eiffel Tower
Photographer: Francois Guillot/AFP/Getty Images

Eight attackers died in the assault and police are currently pursuing others believed to have been involved, said a person familiar with the matter, who asked not to be identified discussing an ongoing operation. One assailant who died had a Syrian passport, the person said. An Egyptian passport was found by the body of another, BFM TV reported. A third attacker was a French national known to police, news agency AFP said.

The slaughter compounds one of the deepest crises facing European leaders since World War II as they struggle to accommodate a stream of refugees from war-torn Syria while also facing jihadist retribution for air strikes on Islamic State. The deadliest of the Paris attacks, at the Bataclan concert hall, occurred a short walk from the offices of satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, where a January rampage that killed 17 began.

Friday’s attacks were committed "by a jihadist army against the values that we defend everywhere, against what we are: a free country," Hollande said in a televised address Saturday. "It was an act of war that was prepared and organized abroad, and with complicity" from individuals in France, he said.

About 300 victims remained hospitalized, with 80 in critical condition, AFP reported. Those killed and injured in the first ever suicide bombings in France came from multiple countries, including the U.S., Netherlands, Sweden, Romania and Belgium.

In a statement posted on Twitter, Islamic State said the assaults were retaliation for French airstrikes on its "caliphate." The attacks are "the first drop in the rain, and should serve as a warning,” the group said.

France is participating in the U.S.-led coalition that’s bombing Islamic State positions in both Syria and Iraq, and is the only European nation conducting major combat operations in both countries.

Refugee Debate

While there is no evidence refugees were involved, the drama in Paris is certain to intensify debate about accepting migrants fleeing Syria and Iraq for the European Union, where hundreds of thousands have sought shelter this year. Right-wing politicians in some countries argue that the open-door policy advocated by German Chancellor Angela Merkel will let more jihadists into the 28-nation bloc.

They’re also likely to re-open the issue of how to better integrate France’s Muslim population, the largest in Europe -- especially if some of the gunmen are found to have been French citizens, as in the Charlie Hebdo violence.

Border Control

Police forces, firefighters and rescue workers secure the area near the Bataclan concert hall in central Paris, on Nov. 14.
Police forces, firefighters and rescue workers secure the area near the Bataclan concert hall in central Paris, on Nov. 14.
Photographer: FRANCOIS GUILLOT/AFP/Getty Images

Marine Le Pen, the leader of the hard-right National Front, called for France to "take back definitive control of its borders" and strengthen policing and the military. Speaking from her party’s headquarters in the Paris suburbs, she said France should strip French terrorists of their nationality, "and ban them from the country."

The coordinated incidents began around 9:15 p.m. local time with three suicide bombings near the Stade de France, where Hollande and a crowd of 80,000 were watching a France-Germany soccer game. Almost simultaneously, gunmen with automatic rifles jumped from cars at various bars and restaurants in the vibrant 10th and 11th arrondissements of the capital, shooting at Parisians who moments earlier had been enjoying a normal start to the weekend.

Officials investigate the scene outside the Bataclan concert hall
Officials investigate the scene outside the Bataclan concert hall
Photographer: Thierry Orban/Getty Images

Popular Neighborhoods

The attackers chose targets relatively far from the capital’s more touristy central districts, focusing instead on neighborhoods popular with locals. With the exception of the Stade de France, none of the locations was a prominent government building or cultural site, meaning they would have had little or no security protection.

The deadliest assault was at Bataclan, where suicide bombers held hundreds hostage, killing over 80 and severely injuring dozens before police stormed the concert venue.

Theresa Cede, a 39-year-old who works in the telecommunications sector, was at Bataclan with a friend when the gunmen burst in, shooting people standing near her on a balcony. "I hid underneath the body of a man who was shot in the head. I was covered in blood," Cede said. Another woman lying next to her was severely wounded.

Speaking in French, the gunmen referred to the war in Syria as they moved around the theater, shooting at random with both single shots and automatic fire, said Cede, who escaped unharmed after police stormed the building. "I don’t know how many guardian angels I had looking out for me," she said.

U.S. law enforcement officials are concerned the assaults demonstrate an enhanced capacity by jihadists to carry out strikes far from their home bases in the Middle East, an American counter-terrorism official said, declining to be identified in line with government policy. They came two weeks after the crash of a Russian airliner departing Egypt that has been blamed on a bomb placed by militants.

"This attack was coordinated, sophisticated and well planned," reminiscent of earlier strikes by Al Qaeda, said Sajjan Gohel, London-based international security director for the Asia-Pacific Foundation. "It represents a major escalation in tactics and strategy."

The success of the Paris assault illustrates the scale of the challenge for police and intelligence agencies as they try to stop extremist plots, and to secure the thousands of so-called soft targets that exist in any major city.

Members of the army patrol at the Gare du Nord train station
Members of the army patrol at the Gare du Nord train station
Photographer: Simon Dawson/Bloomberg

After the Charlie Hebdo attacks, France began a wide-ranging program of improvements to its anti-terror capabilities, including hiring extra police officers and enacting new laws to enable increased electronic surveillance. Soldiers armed with assault rifles are a regular sight at prominent buildings throughout the country, and they’re trained to repel assaults like those on Friday.

However, officials have said that keeping track of suspected militants in a comprehensive way is almost impossible given the resources and manpower required to maintain around-the-clock surveillance of hundreds -- or even thousands -- of individuals believed to have links to extremist groups.

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