The latest eruption of fighting between the Israeli military and Gaza rocket squads is the worst since 2009 by death toll.
Below is a timeline showing key developments leading to that escalation.
1967: Israel takes control of Gaza from Egypt after the Six Day War.
December 1987: A deadly traffic accident leads to clashes in Jebaliya refugee camp in northern Gaza and sets off the first Palestinian uprising, or intifada in Arabic, which lasts until the Oslo accords in 1993 and kills more than 2,000 Palestinians and 192 Israelis.
August 1988: Hamas issues its covenant after being founded in late 1987 as an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood.
1994: The first suicide bombing against Israeli citizens in Israel claimed by Hamas.
August 1997: Hamas is listed by the U.S. as a terrorist group.
2000: Ariel Sharon makes a visit to the Temple Mount that sparks a cycle of violence that becomes the second intifada. The uprising ends four years later with about 3,000 Palestinians, 1,000 Israelis and 64 foreigners dead.
March 22, 2004: After a wave of Hamas suicide bombings in Israeli cities, an Israeli missile kills Hamas spiritual founder Sheikh Ahmed Yassin.
November 11, 2004: Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat dies in a Paris hospital.
August - September 2005: Israel evacuates settlements and pulls troops out of Gaza, retaining control of its own border with Gaza, the coastline and airspace.
January 2006: Hamas wins 76 of 132 seats in legislative elections, unseating Mahmoud Abbas’s long-dominant Fatah party, which took 45. Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh forms a government, four months later the U.S. and EU suspend aid to the Palestinian Authority because the Islamist group refuses to renounce violence and recognize Israel.
June 2006: Hamas militants tunnel into Israel from Gaza, killing two soldiers and capturing a third, Gilad Shalit. Israel wages an offensive on Gaza but fails to rescue Shalit.
2007: Hamas takes control of Gaza in June after violent clashes with Fatah forces loyal to Abbas; more than 100 people die. Hamas is ousted from government positions in the West Bank, where Fatah continues to hold sway. Israel imposes a naval and land blockade on Gaza.
June 2008: After fighting between Israel and Gaza that included rocket fire from the Hamas territory at Israel’s south, Egypt brokers a six-month truce. The cease-fire begins unraveling weeks before it formally expires.
December 2008: Israel warns it will respond with force to escalating rocket fire. More than 1,400 Palestinians, including hundreds of civilians, and 13 Israelis are killed during a three-week confrontation that ends in a cease-fire in January 2009.
May 31, 2010: Israeli naval commandos drop from helicopters onto the deck of the Mavi Marmara as it tries to break Israel’s marine blockade on Gaza. Nine Turks were killed. Israel says people on board shot first and attacked with iron bars, a charge they deny.
October 2011: Hamas agrees to swap Shalit for more than 1,000 Palestinian prisoners held by Israel.
November 2012: Israel launches an eight-day air offensive on Gaza following a spike in rocket fire. A truce mediated by Egypt ended the conflict that left at least 130 Palestinians and six Israelis dead.
June 2014: Hamas and Fatah form a unity government following the collapse of U.S.-sponsored talks between the Palestinian Authority and Israel in April. Israel accuses Hamas of kidnapping and killing three Israeli teenagers. Its roundup of militants in the search for the missing youths intensifies rocket barrages. Israel parries with air strikes on Gaza targets.
July 2014: As rocket fire steps up, Israel accelerates its air campaign and mobilizes about 40,000 soldiers for a possible ground invasion.