Innovators: Assaf Biderman, 36; Carlo Ratti, 42
Associate director and director of MIT’s SENSEable City Laboratory, an urban development researcher. Biderman founded startup Superpedestrian and licensed the technology from MIT in 2012.
Form and function: A motorized rear wheel that turns a bicycle into an electric hybrid. Pedal energy is stored in a battery pack that a rider, using a smartphone app, can draw on for a boost on long or uphill routes.