Bloomberg Anywhere Remote Login Bloomberg Terminal Demo Request


Connecting decision makers to a dynamic network of information, people and ideas, Bloomberg quickly and accurately delivers business and financial information, news and insight around the world.


Financial Products

Enterprise Products


Customer Support

  • Americas

    +1 212 318 2000

  • Europe, Middle East, & Africa

    +44 20 7330 7500

  • Asia Pacific

    +65 6212 1000


Industry Products

Media Services

Follow Us

Lewis Lapham: Dorothy’s Shoes Morph From Silver to Ruby

The ruby slippers worn by actress Judy Garland as Dorothy in the
The ruby slippers worn by actress Judy Garland as Dorothy in the "Wizard of Oz" at the Smithsonian Mueseum of American History in Washington. Photographer: Karen Bleier/AFP/Getty Images

Nov. 16 (Bloomberg) -- In L. Frank Baum’s 1900 novel, “The Wonderful Wizard of Oz,” as well as the subsequent cartoon, stage musical and silent movies, Dorothy’s slippers are silver.

(To listen to the podcast, click here.)

Wanting to replicate Disney’s Technicolor success with “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs,” Louis B. Mayer bought the film rights to Baum’s book and hired Judy Garland to star. With the new visual technology, silver footwear appeared pallid and dull.

MGM Studios costume designer Gilbert Adrian found that red silk fabric slippers looked orange under the bright lights, so he had 2,300 dark burgundy, almost brown, sequins sewn in rows onto the shoes. To make Dorothy look more innocent, at George Cukor’s request he also added butterflies.

In 1938, it cost about $15 to make the ruby slippers. In 2011, one pair of the four known to exist from the film, sold for $2 million at auction.

The Smithsonian has a pair of authenticated ruby slippers on display -- it’s one of the most popular exhibitions at the museum.

I spoke with Richard Kurin, author of “The Smithsonian’s History of America in 101 Objects,” on the following topics:

1. From 137 Million to 101

2. Franklin’s Staff

3. Lincoln’s Silk Hat

4. Woolworth Lunch Counter

5. Dorothy’s Ruby Slippers

To buy this book in North America, click here.

(Lewis Lapham is the founder of Lapham’s Quarterly and the former editor of Harper’s magazine. He hosts “The World in Time” interview series for Bloomberg News.)

Muse highlights include Zinta Lundborg on NYC Weekend and Greg Evans on movies.

To contact the reporter on this story: Lewis Lapham in New York at

To contact the editor responsible for this story: Manuela Hoelterhoff at

Please upgrade your Browser

Your browser is out-of-date. Please download one of these excellent browsers:

Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera or Internet Explorer.