March 3 (Bloomberg) -- JFE Holdings Inc.’s shipbuilding unit, in talks to merge with IHI Marine United Inc., may invite other Japanese companies to join the enlarged group to help it compete with South Korean and Chinese rivals.
“A combined unit would boost competitiveness” of all companies that joined with IHI Marine and Universal Shipbuilding Corp., Chief Executive Officer Shinjiro Mishima said, adding that he would welcome more Japanese yards.
Japanese shipbuilders have struggled as steel prices increased, output capacity outstripped demand and sustained gains in the yen that reached a 15-year high in November made domestic-built ships more expensive than Korean vessels.
“There are too many companies involved in shipbuilding operations in Japan,” Masanori Wakae, an analyst at Mizuho Securities Co. “The industry will need consolidation.”
Japan needs to form a shipbuilder with annual sales of about 500 billion yen ($6.1 billion), more than double Universal’s, to pare costs and speed investment in energy-saving ships, he said. Japan is now the third-largest shipbuilder, behind China and South Korea.
JFE, Japan’s second-largest steelmaker, and IHI Corp. started talks in 2008 to combine their shipbuilding units. Mishima said Universal and IHI Marine United need more time to assess their merger. In November, 2009, he said that plunging demand meant further assessment of the benefits of integration was needed.
“We cannot read the outlook of demand,” he said yesterday in the interview at the company’s headquarters in Kawasaki city, near Tokyo, without specifying a decision deadline.
Universal Shipbuilding was created in 2002 when NKK Corp., now a part of JFE, and Hitachi Zosen merged their shipbuilding operations.
Universal and IHI Marine United have estimated combined sales will reach 400 billion yen in the year ending March 31. South Korea’s Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. had sales of 11.3 trillion won ($10 billion) for shipbuilding and offshore last year.
“There are two ways for the Japanese shipbuilders to survive -- one is to allocate managerial resources to value-added vessels, such as fuel-efficient ships -- and the other is to go abroad and compete against rivals with low costs,” said Eiji Tomaru, an analyst at Mizuho Investors Securities Co., in Tokyo.
Universal intends to continue buying steel from Japanese mills, predominately its parent JFE, rather than switching to cheaper imports, the president said.
Rising Steel Prices
Steel accounts for about 30 percent of the cost of building a ship, making shipbuilders more vulnerable to fluctuations in steel prices than carmakers and consumer electronics companies, Mishima said.
Nippon Steel Corp., Japan’s largest steelmaker, will ask customers to pay 20,000 yen a ton more from April as it seeks to pass on the increased costs of iron ore and coking coal, key raw materials used to make steel, Executive Vice President Kozo Uchida said Feb. 28. That’s an increase of about 25 percent based on the average steel prices estimated in January by the steelmaker for the six months ending March 31.
Japan lost its decades-long title as the world’s biggest shipbuilder to South Korea in 2000 before falling behind China into third place in 2009. Last year, China took the No. 1 spot with a 38 percent share, ahead of South Korea’s 33 percent and Japan’s 21 percent, according to data from Lloyd’s Register.
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