IDENTIFY CANDIDATES

Disease-management companies pinpoint patients who rack up large charges related to diabetes, heart disease, and other chronic illnesses

ON-THE-JOB REINFORCEMENT

Employers urge workers to fill out questionnaires about their health; results are used to find people at risk for expensive treatment

TELEPHONE ATTENTION

Nurses call patients for health "coaching," mail them newsletters about their diseases, and urge participants to chart their symptoms online

FINANCIAL INCENTIVES

Many employers offer discounts on premiums and free medication to workers who participate in disease-management programs

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