Suppose that when you retired, your bank started deluging you with mailings for senior services--each tailored to your exact income, health needs, and spending habits. Or your lender slashed your credit-card limit from $20,000 to $500 after you were diagnosed with a serious disease.
Those two Orwellian scenarios may sound far-fetched, but they might not be for long. In the wake of the proposed megamerger between Citicorp and Travelers Group Inc. and the mad rush by large insurers to acquire thrift charters, consumer advocates are raising valid questions about whether the insurance arms of these new conglomerates will share sensitive medical records with their lending and marketing divisions.
Critics fear that as the new Citigroup and other planned banking behemoths strain to justify their hefty sticker prices, they'll face increasing pressure to exploit customer data for profit. But if they overstep their bounds, the financial industry "risks a customer backlash that could...lead torestrictions on your ability to use precious information resources," warns Acting Comptroller of the Currency Julie L. Williams.
Banking representatives downplay the risks, arguing that lenders would be loath to use health records in the credit process for fear of violating the Americans with Disabilities Act. And at Citicorp, spokesman Jack Morris says that "I don't think we have even thought about" using Travelers' insurance records.
But the biggest justification for creating conglomerates like Citigroup--and the combined Bank of America-NationsBank Corp.--is exactly the synergy from cross-marketing new products. In 1996, bankers lobbied Congress vigorously for changes in the Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970 that let them share more credit information with affiliates dealing in life insurance, mortgages, and credit cards--much to the chagrin of activists. "We think it's inappropriate for banks to use information in ways that consumers didn't expect," says Susan Grant of the National Consumers League.
BOILERPLATE. Unfortunately, banks sharing data with affiliates are exempt from some of the regulations governing independent credit bureaus. These bureaus are where lenders up till now have turned to determine a borrower's creditworthiness. But while Congress prohibited the credit bureaus from dealing in medical records without a customer's consent, the new financial hybrids are under no such restrictions. And while banks are required to allow customers to opt out of having their data used for other purposes, banks generally do little to alert customers to their rights--often burying it in legal boilerplate.
If financial firms don't want Congress to intervene, they should erect Chinese walls to prevent confidential health records from being used in the marketing or lending process. Otherwise, the extra dollars generated from "synergy" will be diminished by the cost of incurring the public's wrath.