Whatever the defects of affirmative-action programs, several "real life" experiments indicate that discrimination is still a disturbing reality in the workplace. In a new National Bureau of Economic Research study by David B. Neumark, Roy J. Bank, and Kyle D. Van Nort, comparably matched pairs of men and women sent job resumes to 65 restaurants in Philadelphia. In high-priced eateries (which offered high earnings prospects), men were more than twice as likely as women to receive an interview and five times as likely to be offered a job.
In a similar study a few years ago, the Urban Institute sent carefully matched pairs of black and white male college students with equal qualifications to answer job advertisements in Chicago and Washington. It found that instances of discrimination against blacks outweighed instances of "reverse discrimination" against whites by 3 to 1.