Once the exclusive domain of Rockefellers, DuPonts, and Mellons, private banking is no longer targeted just to the Old Money set. Not that such venerable institutions as U. S. Trust and Bessemer Trust are setting up outposts of their baronial offices in shopping malls. But private bankers are in hot pursuit of a new type of client: entrepreneurs and corporate executives. While some of the banks still want $5 million to open an investment account, others take $250,000 or less.
Today, private banking is the high end of one-stop financial services. Apart from attending to a host of mundane details, private bankers help clients with tax and financial planning, investment management, investment banking, and innovative loan financing. The cost of belonging to these exclusive clubs varies widely, with additional charges for extra services.
EYEING EARRINGS. There are also little fringe benefits, such as getting theater or hockey tickets. U. S. Trust will wire you money if, say, you spot a $50,000 pair of earrings in Hong Kong. But more often, the special service comes in financial transactions. A private banker at Bank of San Francisco flew to New York on a red-eye flight to get papers signed in time for a critical deadline. A securities analyst at Bessemer wrote a research report answering a client's questions about a stock that wasn't on its recommended list.
Harold Commings, president of Media Barter Associates in New York, takes full advantage of the services at Chase Manhattan's private-banking division. His business of swapping products for media space or airtime has him traveling constantly. He uses Chase, whom he has named a co-executor of his will, to advise him on investments and short-term cash management. "I'm too busy to check my bonds every three months and to clip coupons," says Commings. "I'd rather play golf."
Commings speaks to his private banker weekly and boasts of her doggedness in getting a letter of credit delivered when another bank was dilatory. "She sat on the phone, calling them every hour. She didn't let that guy breathe until he came through," he says. (Chase private-banking officers earn merit raises based on the quality of their service.)
TAILORED FEES. The universe of private banks is almost as diverse as the services they perform. Katharine Donohoe, head of private banking for the American Bankers Assn., estimates that some 350 specialized private-banking institutions--either independent boutiques or subsidiaries of other banks--plus 5,000 community banks have first-name relationships with the local nabobs. Their target clients: the 1.8 million households that PSI, Tampa-based researchers, calls "the wealth market." That category includes corporate execs earning at least $100,000 a year, entrepreneurs whose companies have book values of more than $250,000, and households with a net worth of $1 million, excluding home value.
Fees for the privilege of private banking depend on the services you use. Separate fees are usually charged for performing custodial services, acting as executor of a trust, filling out tax forms, or paying bills. Generally, if you have an investment-management account with the bank, the annual fee will be about 1% of the money under management. Prices on loans and other services are often competitive with what regular customers are charged, although your "relationship potential" may lead to the fees' being waived or lowered.If you don't get special rates, the bank may make up for it with special privileges. When borrowers' paychecks don't qualify them for standard loans, private bankers may make unsecured loans, or secured loans backed by out-of-the-ordinary assets such as artwork or coins. Unconventional loan structures may also be used. Morgan Guaranty Trust says it arranged a private placement with five institutions of a $140 million personal loan backed by the owner's shares in his public company. "This was one of the first private placements for an individual," says a banker involved in the deal.
Flexible repayment schedules can also be arranged. U. S. Trust makes balloon loans with no monthly payments to carry executives from this year's bonus to next year's. Or perhaps you need cash to exercise stock options or pay the Internal Revenue Service in a hurry.
Donald Stephens, chief executive officer at Bank of San Francisco, tells of an executive who fell in love with a house and wanted to buy it quickly to avoid paying a capital-gains tax on his last house before the grace period expired. But he couldn't get a mortgage because he was between jobs and couldn't show a steady paycheck. Because the executive had left his former company with a golden handshake, the bank gave him a six-figure bridge loan instead of a mortgage.
The personal touch can also pay off in peace of mind when it comes to investment management. Because they don't pay commissions, clients needn't worry that their banker is after personal gain. The average 1% fee affords clients unlimited trading, and the bank pays any commissions. But many clients continue to use their regular brokers, while the bank gets securities transferred and paid for, collects dividends, and does the bookkeeping.
As eager as such bankers are to please, the most common failing is lack of coordination among different parts of the bank. The expertise may be there, but clients may not get it because of turf battles. "At chain banks, if you need something from someone other than your banker," says Stephens, "many times you are walking in mud."
It also makes sense to choose a bank that is looking for customers in your income bracket and with strengths in the services you are likely to use. Clients suggest calling the head of private banking first and requesting a 30-minute interview. "If you meet the bank's financial minimums, and you don't get a responsive answer," says one, "I would move on."
BENDING RULES. Personal chemistry is critical. Bankers must inspire confidence as being knowledgeable, service-oriented, and around for the long haul. After all, private-banking relationships should go on for decades. Bankers Trust manages trusts set up more than 60 years ago.
Donald Barry, senior vice-president at California's Security Pacific National Bank, says his hardest job is telling prospects they aren't eligible. But many customers who don't keep the minimum balances become clients anyway. The need for steady fee income is a strong motivation for banks. PSI figures half the accounts in existence do not meet the institution's stated eligibility requirements.
If your net worth doesn't open the door, your bright prospects may. Or you could offer to bring your account up to the minimum once you see how the bank performs. After all, when you pay for select service, you want to be sure to get your money's worth.
PICKING THE STYLE THAT'S RIGHT FOR YOU Institution Minimum* Personality BANK OF $ 250,000 Young, hungry, advocate for new SAN FRANCISCO money BANKERS TRUST 2 million Safe, old, big; yearns to be J. P. Morgan BESSEMER TRUST 5 million Understated class, old-money treatment CHASE MANHATTAN 250,000 Big-city slicker aiming to be small- town personal CITIBANK 250,000 Massive global operation trying to PRIVATE BANK be more things to more people GOLDMAN SACHS 5 million Wall Street savvy, but a novice in private banking ASSET MANAGEMENT HARRIS TRUST 250,000 Solid, a bank your mother could love J. P. MORGAN 5 million White-shoe firm loves big money, complex deals NORTHERN TRUST 1 million Midwestern version of Bankers Trust SECURITY PACIFIC 1 million In sync with Southern Californians NATIONAL BANK who have arrived U. S. TRUST 250,000 Under its old-line exterior beats the heart of an ambitious banker *Cash and investment assets DATA: BW