Nobel Prize Winners for Literature: History

Following is a historical table of Nobel Prize Laureates for Literature from the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm.

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Year Nobel Laureate(s)        Country
     Citation
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2013 Alice Munro              Canada
     Master of the contemporary short story
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2012 Mo Yan                   China
     Who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and
     the contemporary.
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2011 Tomas Tranströmer        Sweden
     Because, through his condensed, transluscent images, he gives us
     fresh access to reality.
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2010 Mario Vargas Llosa       Peru
     For his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images
     of the individual’s resistance, revolt, and defeat.
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2009 Herta Mueller            Germany
     Who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose,
     depicts the landscape of the dispossessed
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2008 Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio            France
     Author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy,
     explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization
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2007 Doris Lessing            United Kingdom
     “That epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and
     visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny.
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2006 Orhan Pamuk              Turkey
     Who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has
     discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures.
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2005 Harold Pinter            United Kingdom
     Who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces
     entry into oppression’s closed rooms.
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2004 Elfriede Jelinek         Austria
     For her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays
     that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society’s
     cliches and their subjugating power
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2003 J.M. Coetzee             South Africa
     Who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the
     outsider.
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2002 Imre Kertesz             Hungary
     For writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against
     the barbaric arbitrariness of history.
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2001 V.S. Naipaul             United Kingdom
     For having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works
     that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories.
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2000 Gao Xingjian             France
     For an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic
     ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama.
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1999 Gunter Grass             Germany
     Whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history.
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1998 Jose Saramago            Portugal
     Who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony
     continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality.
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1997 Dario Fo                 Italy
     Who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and
     upholding the dignity of the downtrodden.
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1996 Wislawa Szymborska       Poland
     For poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological
     context to come to light in fragments of human reality.
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1995 Seamus Heaney            Ireland
     For works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday
     miracles and the living past.
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1994 Kenzaburo Oe             Japan
     Who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth
     condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today.
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1993 Toni Morrison            United States
     Who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives
     life to an essential aspect of American reality.
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1992 Derek Walcott            Saint Lucia
     For a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical
     vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment.
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1991 Nadine Gordimer          South Africa
     Who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred
     Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity.
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1990 Octavio Paz              Mexico
     For impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous
     intelligence and humanistic integrity.
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1989 Camilo Jose Cela         Spain
     For a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a
     challenging vision of man’s vulnerability.
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1988 Naguib Mahfouz           Egypt
     Who, through works rich in nuance - now clear-sightedly realistic, now
     evocatively ambiguous - has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies
     to all mankind.
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1987 Joseph Brodsky           United States
     For an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and
     poetic intensity.
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1986 Wole Soyinka             Nigeria
     who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions
     the drama of existence.
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1985 Claude Simon             France
     Who in his novel combines the poet’s and the painter’s creativeness with
     a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition.
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1984 Jaroslav Seifert         Czechoslovakia
     For his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich
     inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and
     versatility of man.
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1983 William Golding          United Kingdom
     For his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art
     and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition
     in the world of today.
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1982 Gabriel Garcia Marquez   Columbia
     For his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic
     are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a
     continent’s life and conflicts.
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1981 Elias Canetti            United Kingdom
     For writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and
     artistic power.
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1980 Czeslaw Milosz           Poland and USA
     Who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man’s exposed condition
     in a world of severe conflicts.
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1979 Odysseus Elytis          Greece
     For his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts
     with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man’s
     struggle for freedom and creativeness.
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1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer    United States
     For his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish
     cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life.
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1977 Vicente Aleixandre       Spain
     For a creative poetic writing which illuminates man’s condition in the
     cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great
     renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry beween the wars.
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1976 Saul Bellow              United States
     For the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture
     that are combined in his work.
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1975 Eugenio Montale          Italy
     For his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has
     interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no
     illusions.
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1974 Eyvind Johnson           Sweden
     For a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of
     freedom.
     Harry Martinson          Sweden
     For writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos.
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1973 Patrick White            Australia
     For an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a
     new continent into literature.
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1972 Heinrich Boll            Germany
     For his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on
     his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a
     renewal of German literature.
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1971 Pablo Neruda             Chile
     For a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a
     continent’s destiny and dreams.
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1970 Alexandr Solzhenitsyn    USSR
     For the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable
     traditions of Russian literature.
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1969 Samuel Beckett           Ireland
     For his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the
     destitution of modern man acquires its elevation.
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1968 Yasunari Kawabata        Japan
     For his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the
     essence of the Japanese mind.
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1967 Miguel Angel Asturias    Guatemala
     For his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and
     traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America.
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1966 Samuel Agnon             Israel
     For his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life
     of the Jewish people.

     Nelly Sachs              Sweden
     For her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel’s
     destiny with touching strength.
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1965 Mikhail Sholokhov        USSR
     for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don,
     he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian
     people.
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1964 Jean-Paul Sartre         France
     For his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom
     and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age.
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1963 Giorgos Seferis          Greece
     For his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the
     Hellenic world of culture.
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1962 John Steinbeck           United States
     For his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do
     sympathetic humour and keen social perception.
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1961 Ivo Andric               Yugoslavia
     For the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human
     destinies drawn from the history of his country.
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1960 Saint-John Perse         France
     For the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a
     visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time.
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1959 Salvatore Quasimodo      Italy
     For his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic
     experience of life in our own times.
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1958 Boris Pasternak          USSR
     For his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in
     the field of the great Russian epic tradition.
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1957 Albert Camus             France
     For his important literary production, which with clear-sighted
     earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times.]
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1956 Juan Ramon Jimenez       Spain
     For his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example
     of high spirit and artistical purity.
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1955 Halldor Laxness          Iceland
     For his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art
     of Iceland.
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1954 Ernest Hemingway         United States
     for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in
     The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on
     contemporary style.
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1953 Winston Churchill        United Kingdom
     For his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for
     brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values.
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1952 Francois Mauriac         France
     for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he
     has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life.
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1951 Par Lagerkvist           Sweden
     For the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he
     endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions
     confronting mankind.
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1950 Bertrand Russell         United Kingdom
     In recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he
     champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought.
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1949 William Faulkner         United States
     For his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern
     American novel.
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1948 T.S. Eliot               United Kingdom
     For his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry.
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1947 Andre Gide               France
     for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which
     human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of
     truth and keen psychological insight.
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1946 Hermann Hesse            Switzerland
     for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and
     penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high
     qualities of style.
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1945 Gabriela Mistral         Chile
     For her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her
     name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin
     American world.
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1944 Johannes V. Jensen       Denmark
     For the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which
     is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly
     creative style.
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1943 One-third of the prize money was allocated to the Main Fund and
     two-thirds allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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1942 One-third of the prize money was allocated to the Main Fund and
     two-thirds allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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1941 One-third of the prize money was allocated to the Main Fund and
     two-thirds allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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1940 One-third of the prize money was allocated to the Main Fund and
     two-thirds allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpaa    Finland
     For his deep understanding of his country’s peasantry and the exquisite
     art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship
     with Nature.
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1938 Pearl Buck               United States
     For her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and
     for her biographical masterpieces.
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1937 Roger Martin du Gard     France
     For the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human
     conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his
     novel-cycle Les Thibault.
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1936 Eugene O’Neill           United States
     For the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works,
     which embody an original concept of tragedy.
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1935 One-third of the prize money was allocated to the Main Fund and
     two-thirds allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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1934 Luigi Pirandello         Italy
     For his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art.
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1933 Ivan Bunin               stateless domicile in France
     For the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical
     Russian traditions in prose writing.
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1932 John Galsworthy          United Kingdom
     For his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in
     The Forsyte Saga.
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1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt      Sweden
     The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt.
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1930 Sinclair Lewis           United States
     For his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create,
     with wit and humour, new types of characters.
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1929 Thomas Mann              Germany
     Principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily
     increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary
     literature.
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1928 Sigrid Undset            Norway
     Principially for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during
     the Middle Ages.
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1927 Henri Bergson            France
     In recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill
     with which they have been presented.
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1926 Grazia Deledda           Italy
     For her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity
     picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal
     with human problems in general.
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1925 George Bernard Shaw      United Kingdom
     For his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its
     stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty.
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1924 Wladyslaw Reymont        Poland
     For his great national epic, “The Peasants”
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1923 William Butler Yeats     Ireland
     For his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives
     expression to the spirit of a whole nation.
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1922 Jacinto Benavente        Spain
     For the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions
     of the Spanish drama.
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1921 Anatole France           France
     In recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as
     they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and
     a true Gallic temperament.
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1920 Knut Hamsun              Norway
     For his monumental work, Growth of the Soil.
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1919 Carl Spitteler           Switzerland
     In special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring.
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1918 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
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1917 Karl Gjellerup           Denmark
     For his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals.
     Henrik Pontoppidan       Denmark
     For his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark.
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1916 Verner von Heidenstam    Sweden
     In recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a
     new era in our literature.
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1915 Romain Rolland           France
     As a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to
     the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different
     types of human beings.
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1914 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
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1913 Rabindranath Tagore      India
     Because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which,
     with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his
     own English words, a part of the literature of the West.
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1912 Gerhart Hauptmann        Germany
     Primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding
     production in the realm of dramatic art.
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1911 Maurice Maeterlinck      Belgium
     In appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially
     of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination
     and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy
     tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the
     readers’ own feelings and stimulate their imaginations.
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1910 Paul Heyse               Germany
     As a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which
     he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet,
     dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories.
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1909 Selma Lagerlof           Sweden
     In appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual
     perception that characterize her writings.
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1908 Rudolf Eucken            Germany
     In recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of
     thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in
     presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and
     developed an idealistic philosophy of life.
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1907 Rudyard Kipling          United Kingdom
     In consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination,
     virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize
     the creations of this world-famous author.
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1906 Giosue Carducci          Italy
     Not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research,
     but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style,
     and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces.
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1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz       Poland
     Because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer.
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1904 Frederic Mistral         France
     In recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic
     production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native
     spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a
     Provencal philologist.

     Jose Echegaray           Spain
     In recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an
     individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the
     Spanish drama.
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1903 Bjornstjerne Bjornson    Norway
     As a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has
     always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and
     the rare purity of its spirit.
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1902 Theodor Mommsen          Germany
     The greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special
     reference to his monumental work, “A history of Rome”.
1901 Sully Prudhomme          France
     In special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence
     of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the
     qualities of both heart and intellect.
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Source: nobelprize.org

To contact the reporter on this story: Joel Rinneby in Stockholm at jrinneby@bloomberg.net

To contact the editor responsible for this story: Marco Babic at mbabic@bloomberg.net

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