From the start of mass protests against Hosni Mubarak to tomorrow’s swearing in of Mohamed Mursi as Egypt’s first democratically elected civilian president, below are some key dates in the country’s transition.
December 2010: Mohamed Bouazizi, an unemployed Tunisian, sets fire to himself in the incident that provoked the first uprising of the Arab Spring.
Jan. 14: Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali flees the country after a month of protests.
Jan. 25: Tens of thousands participate in mass rally in Egypt demanding Hosni Mubarak step down. The protest is violently dispersed.
Jan. 27: Egyptian stock exchange closes after a two-day loss of 16 percent. Trading is later suspended and doesn’t resume until March 23.
Jan. 28: Hundreds of thousands gather for march to Cairo’s Tahrir Square in a “Day of Rage.” The government shuts down internet and mobile-phone services. Clashes erupt between the protesters and the police before the Interior Ministry’s forces withdraw and the army is deployed.
Jan. 29: A curfew is imposed, and ignored by the demonstrators who carry on through the night. Mubarak appoints military intelligence chief Omar Suleiman his vice president and Ahmed Shafik is named as prime minister after Ahmed Nazif is fired.
Feb. 2: “Battle of the Camel.” Mubarak supporters charge into Tahrir Square on horses and camels, wielding whips, clubs and other weapons, resulting in hundreds of casualties. The military does not intervene. Internet connection restored.
Feb. 11: Suleiman says Mubarak has relinquished power and the military council headed by Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi is taking over.
Feb. 13: The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces dissolves the parliament and suspends the constitution.
March 3: Shafik is replaced by Essam Sharaf as prime minister amid continued protests.
March 19: Egyptians vote on constitutional referendum, approving it in ‘yes’ vote of over 77 percent.
Aug. 1: Military clears Tahrir Square after months of protests, dismantling tents used by the demonstrators in a move cheered by many in the capital after the rallies disrupted daily life for months.
Aug. 3: Mubarak’s trial begins on charges including complicity in the deaths of more than 850 people killed in the uprising. He is wheeled in on a hospital bed and pleads not guilty.
Sept. 9: Protesters storm the Israeli Embassy in Cairo after several military personnel and security forces are killed along the Egypt-Israel border. The attack prompts the military to expand the emergency laws.
Oct. 9: The army and Coptic Christians clash outside the state radio and television building in Cairo. More than two dozen are killed.
Nov. 19-25: The army and demonstrators clash near Tahrir Square, leaving dozens dead. Sharaf’s Cabinet resigns and Kamal el- Ganzouri, who had served as prime minister under Mubarak, is named as the head of the new government.
Nov. 28: First stage of the country’s three-phase parliamentary election begins.
Jan. 21. Results of the parliamentary vote are released, showing the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party winning about 47 percent of the legislature’s lower house while the Salafi Nour Party secured around 25 percent of seats.
Jan. 23: Parliament convenes for its first session since the uprising. FJP lawmaker Saad el-Katatni is elected as speaker.
March 27: Secularists and others withdraw from a 100-member committee charged with drafting the country’s new constitution, complaining that it was dominated by the Islamists.
March 31: Muslim Brotherhood reverses course on earlier pledge to not field a presidential candidate and names its chief strategist, Khairat el-Shater, as its nominee.
April 8: The FJP nominates its chief, Mohamed Mursi, as a back- up candidate amid concerns that el-Shater would be disqualified by the election commission.
April 15: Election commission disqualifies el-Shater, along with Suleiman and Salafi lawyer-turned-cleric Hazem Abu Ismail from the presidential race.
May 2: Clashes break out near the Defense Ministry, sparking days of violence that left several dead and dozens wounded. Supporters of Abu Ismail reported to have played a major role in the unrest.
May 23-24: First round of presidential election is held with 13 candidates running for office. Mursi and Shafik emerge as the two leading votewinners who will compete in the runoff.
June 2: Mubarak sentenced to life in prison on charges of failing to prevent the killing of protesters. His longtime security chief is also sentenced to life while six other top security officials are acquitted. Critics say those acquittals open the door for the overturning of Mubarak’s sentence on appeal.
June 14: Egypt’s highest court orders the dissolution of parliament on the grounds that parties improperly fielded candidates for the one-third of the seats reserved for individual nominees.
June 16-17: Second-round election is runoff between Mursi and Shafik. Both candidates claim victory. Field Marshal Tantawi issues order dissolving parliament, enforcing the court’s ruling.
June 17: Ruling military council issues new constitutional addendums hours after polls close, giving itself new powers at the expense of the presidency. The Brotherhood and other groups liken the move to a coup.
June 24: Election commission declares Mursi the winner, after delaying an announcement initially scheduled for June 21 in order to evaluate appeals by both candidates.
June 29: Egypt’s presidency announces that Mursi will take oath of office before the Constitutional Court on June 30.
To contact the reporter on this story: Tarek El-Tablawy in Cairo at firstname.lastname@example.org
To contact the editor responsible for this story: Andrew J. Barden at email@example.com