Nobel Prize Winners for Chemistry: History Table

Following is a historical table of Nobel Prize Laureates for Chemistry from the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm.

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Year Nobel Laureate(s)
     Discovery/Contribution   Country        Institution
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2011 Dan Shechtman            Israel         Technion - Israel Institute of
                                             Technology
     For the discovery of quasicrystals
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2010 Richard F. Heck          United States  University of Delaware
     Ei-ichi Negishi          United States  Purdue University
     Akira Suzuki             Japan          Hokkaido University
     For palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis.
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2009 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan United Kingdom MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
     Thomas A. Steitz         United States  Yale University New Haven
     Ada E. Yonath            Israel   Weizmann Institute of Science Rehovot
     For studies of the structure and function of the ribosome
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2008 Osamu Shimomura          United States  Marine Biological Laboratory
     Martin Chalfie           United States  Columbia University
     Roger Y. Tsien           United States  University of California San Diego
     For the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP
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2007 Gerhard Ertl             Germany        Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG
     For his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces.

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2006 Roger D. Kornberg        United States  Stanford University
     For his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription.
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2005 Yves Chauvin             France         Institut Francais du Petrole
     Robert H. Grubbs         United States  Caltech
     Richard R. Schrock       United States  MIT
     For the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis.
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2004 Aaron Ciechanover        Israel         Israel Institute of Technology
     Avram Hershko            Israel         Israel Institute of Technology
     Irwin Rose               United States  University of California
     For the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation.
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2003 Peter Agre               United States  Johns Hopkins University
     For the discovery of water channels.

     Roderick MacKinnon       United States  Rockefeller University;
                                             Howard Hughes Medical Institute
     For structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels.

     Both cited for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes.
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2002 John B. Fenn             United States  Virginia Commonwealth University
     Koichi Tanaka            Japan          Shimadzu Corp.
     For their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass
     spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules.

     Kurt Wuthrich            Switzerland    Swiss Federal Institute of
                                             Technology
     For his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for
     determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules
     in solution.

     All cited for the development of methods for identification and structure
     analyses of biological macromolecules.
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2001 William S. Knowles       United States  No affiliation given
     Ryoji Noyori             Japan          Nagoya University
     For their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions.

     K. Barry Sharpless       United States  The Scripps Research Institute
     For his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions.
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2000 Alan Heeger              United States  University of California
     Alan G. MacDiarmid       United States, University of Pennsylvania
                              New Zealand
     Hideki Shirakawa         Japan          University of Tsukuba
     For the discovery and development of conductive polymers.
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1999 Ahmed Zewail             Egypt, USA     Caltech
     For his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using
     femtosecond spectroscopy.
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1998 Walter Kohn              United States  University of California
     For his development of the density-functional theory.

     John Pople               United Kingdom Northwestern University
     For his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry.
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1997 Paul D. Boyer            United States  University of California
     John E. Walker           United Kingdom MRC Laboratory of
                                             Molecular Biology
     For their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis
     adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

     Jens C. Skou             Denmark        Aarhus University
     For the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase.
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1996 Robert F. Curl Jr.       United States  Rice University
     Sir Harold Kroto         United Kingdom University of Sussex
     Richard E. Smalley       United States  Rice University
     For their discovery of fullerenes.
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1995 Paul J. Crutzen          Netherlands    Max-Planck-Institut
     Mario J. Molina          United States  MIT
     F. Sherwood Rowland      United States  University of California
     For their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the
     formation and decomposition of ozone.
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1994 George A. Olah           United States  University of Southern California
     For his contribution to carbocation chemistry.
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1993 Kary B. Mullis           United States  No affiliation given
     For his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.

     Michael Smith            Canada         University of British Columbia
     For his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-
     -based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies.

     Both cited for contributions to the developments of methods within
     DNA-based chemistry.
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1992 Rudolph A. Marcus        United States  Caltech
     For his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in
     chemical systems.
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1991 Richard R. Ernst         Switzerland    Swiss Federal Institute
                                             of Technology
     For his contributions to the development of the methodology of high
     resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
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1990 Elias James Corey        United States  Harvard University
     For his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis.
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1989 Sidney Altman            Canada, USA    Yale University
     Thomas R. Cech           United States  University of Colorado
     For their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA.
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1988 Johann Deisenhofer       Germany        University of Texas Southwestern
                                             Southwestern Medical Center
     Robert Huber             Germany        Max-Planck-Institut
     Hartmut Michel           Germany        Max-Planck-Institut
     For the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a
     photosynthetic reaction centre.
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1987 Donald J. Cram           United States  University of California
     Jean-Marie Lehn          France         Universite Louis Pasteur
     Charles J. Pedersen      United States  Du Pont
     For their development and use of molecules with structure-specific
     interactions of high selectivity.
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1986 Dudley R. Herschbach     United States  Harvard University
     Yuan T. Lee              United States  University of California
     John C. Polanyi          Canada         University of Toronto
     For their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical
     elementary processes
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1985 Herbert A. Hauptman      United States  Medical Foundation of Buffalo
     Jerome Karle             United States  US Naval Research Laboratory
     For their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods
     for the determination of crystal structures.
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1984 Bruce Merrifield         United States  Rockefeller University
     For his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid
     matrix.
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1983 Henry Taube              United States  Stanford University
     For his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions,
     especially in metal complexes.
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1982 Aaron Klug               United Kingdom MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
     For his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his
     structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein
     complexes.
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1981 Kenichi Fukui            Japan          Kyoto University
     Roald Hoffmann           United States  Cornell University
     For their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of
     chemical reactions.
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1980 Paul Berg                United States  Stanford University
     For his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids,
     with particular regard to recombinant-DNA.

     Walter Gilbert           United States  Harvard University
     Frederick Sanger         United Kingdom MRC Laboratory of
                                             Molecular Biology
     For their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences
     in nucleic acids.
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1979 Herbert C. Brown         United States  Purdue University
     Georg Wittig             Germany        University of Heidelberg
     For their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing
     compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis.
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1978 Peter Mitchell           United Kingdom Glynn Research Laboratories
     For his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer
     through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory.
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1977 Ilya Prigogine           Belgium        Universite Libre de Bruxelles
     For his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly
     the theory of dissipative structures.
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1976 William Lipscomb         United States  Harvard University
     For his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems
     of chemical bonding.
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1975 John Cornforth           Australia, UK  University of Sussex
     For his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

     Vladimir Prelog          Switzerland    Swiss Federal Institute
                                             of Technology
     For his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and
     reactions.
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1974 Paul J. Flory            United States  Stanford University
     for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental,
     in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules.
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1973 Ernst Otto Fischer       Germany        Technical University of Munich
     Geoffrey Wilkinson       United Kingdom Imperial College
     For their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of
     the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds.
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1972 Christian Anfinsen       United States  National Institutes of Health
     For his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection
     between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation

     Stanford Moore           United States  Rockefeller University
     William H. Stein         United States  Rockefeller University
     For their contribution to the understanding of the connection between
     chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the
     ribonuclease molecule.
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1971 Gerhard Herzberg         Canada         National Research Council
                                             of Canada
     For his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and
     geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals.
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1970 Luis Leloir              Argentina      Institute for Biochemical
                                             Research
     For his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis
     of carbohydrates.
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1969 Derek Barton             United Kingdom Imperial College
     Odd Hassel               Norway         University of Oslo
     For their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation
     and its application in chemistry.
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1968 Lars Onsager             United States  Yale University
     For the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which
     are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes.
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1967 Manfred Eigen            Germany        Max-Planck-Institut
     Ronald G.W. Norrish      United Kingdom Institute of Physical Chemistry
     George Porter            United Kingdom Royal Institution of
                                             Great Britain
     For their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by
     disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy.
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1966 Robert S. Mulliken       United States  Universityy of Chicago
     For his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic
     structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method.
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1965 Robert B. Woodward       United States  Harvard University
     For his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis.
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1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin United Kingdom University of Oxford
                                             Royal Society
     For her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important
     biochemical substances.
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1963 Karl Ziegler             Germany        Max-Planck-Institut
     Giulio Natta             Italy          Institute of Technology, Milan
     For their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of
     high polymers.
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1962 Max F. Perutz            United Kingdom MRC Laboratory of Molecular
                                             Biology
     John C. Kendrew          United Kingdom MRC Laboratory of Molecular
                                             Biology
     For their studies of the structures of globular proteins.
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1961 Melvin Calvin            United States  University of California
     For his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants.
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1960 Willard F. Libby         United States  University of California
     For his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology,
     geology, geophysics, and other branches of science.
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1959 Jaroslav Heyrovsky       Czechoslovakia Polarographic Institute of the
                                             Czechoslovak Academy of Science
     For his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of
     analysis.
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1958 Frederick Sanger         United Kingdom University of Cambridge
     For his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin.
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1957 Lord Todd                United Kingdom University of Cambridge
     For his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.
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1956 Sir Cyril Hinshelwood    United Kingdom University of Oxford
     Nikolay Semenov          USSR           Institute for Chemical Physics of
                                             the Academy of Sciences
     For their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions.
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1955 Vincent du Vigneaud      United States  Cornell University
     For his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially
     for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone.
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1954 Linus Pauling            United States  Caltech
     For his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application
     to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances.
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1953 Hermann Staudinger       Germany        University of Freiburg
     For his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry.
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1952 Archer J.P. Martin       United Kingdom National Institute for Medical
                                             Research
     Richard L.M. Synge       United Kingdom Rowett Research Institute
     For their invention of partition chromatography.
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1951 Edwin M. McMillan        United States  University of California
     Glenn T. Seaborg         United States  University of California
     For their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements.
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1950 Otto Diels               Germany        Kiel University
     Kurt Alder               Germany        Cologne University
     For their discovery and development of the diene synthesis.
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1949 William F. Giauque       United States  University of California
     For his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics,
     particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely
     low temperatures.
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1948 Arne Tiselius            Sweden         Uppsala University
     For his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis,
     especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the
     serum proteins.
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1947 Sir Robert Robinson      United Kingdom University of Oxford
     For his investigations on plant products of biological importance,
     especially the alkaloids.
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1946 James B. Sumner          United States  Cornell University
     For his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized.

     John H. Northrop         United States  Rockefeller Institute
     Wendell M. Stanley       United States  for Medical Research (Both men)
     For their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.
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1945 Artturi Virtanen         Finland        Helsinki University
     For his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry,
     especially for his fodder preservation method.
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1944 Otto Hahn                Germany        Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut
                                             (now Max-Planck Institut)
     For his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei.
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1943 George de Hevesy         Hungary        Stockholm University
     For his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical
     processes.
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1942 One-third of the prize money was allocated to the Main Fund and
     two-thirds allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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1941 One-third of the prize money was allocated to the Main Fund and
     two-thirds allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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1940 One-third of the prize money was allocated to the Main Fund and
     two-thirds allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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1939 Adolf Butenandt          Germany        Berlin University
                                             Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut
                                             (now Max-Planck Institut)
     For his work on sex hormones.

     Leopold Ruzicka          Switzerland    Swiss Federal Institute of
                                             Technology
     For his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes,
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1938 Richard Kuhn             Germany        University of Heidelberg
                                             Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut
                                             (now Max-Planck Institut)
     For his work on carotenoids and vitamins.
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1937 Norman Haworth           United Kingdom Birmingham University
     For his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C.

     Paul Karrer              Switzerland    University of Zurich
     For his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2.
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1936 Peter Debye              Netherlands    Berlin University
                                             Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut
                                             (now Max-Planck Institut)
     For his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through
     his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays
     and electrons in gases.
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1935 Frederic Joliot          France         Institut du Radium
     Irene Joliot-Curie       France         Institut du Radium
     In recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements.
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1934 Harold C. Urey           United States  Columbia University
     For his discovery of heavy hydrogen.
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1933 One-third of the prize money was allocated to the Main Fund and
     two-thirds allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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1932 Irving Langmuir          United States  General Electric Company
     For his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry.
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1931 Carl Bosch               Germany        University of Heidelberg
                                             I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G.
     Friedrich Bergius        Germany        University of Heidelberg
                                             I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G.
     In recognition of their contributions to the invention and development
     of chemical high pressure methods.
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1930 Hans Fischer             Germany        Institute of Technology Munich
     For his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and
     especially for his synthesis of haemin.
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1929 Arthur Harden            United Kingdom London University
     Hans von Euler-Chelpin   Sweden         Stockholm University
     For their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative
     enzymes.
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1928 Adolf Windaus            Germany        Goettingen University
     For the services rendered through his research into the constitution of
     the sterols and their connection with the vitamins.
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1927 Heinrich Wieland         Germany        Munich University
     For his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related
     substances
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1926 The Svedberg             Sweden         Uppsala University
     For his work on disperse systems.
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1925 Richard Zsigmondy        Germany        Goettingen University
     For his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions
     and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in
     modern colloid chemistry.
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1924 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
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1923 Fritz Pregl              Austria        Graz University
     For his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances.
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1922 Francis W. Aston         United Kingdom University of Cambridge
     For his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a
     large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the
     whole-number rule.
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1921 Frederick Soddy          United Kingdom University of Oxford
     For his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive
     substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes.
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1920 Walther Nernst           Germany        Berlin University
     In recognition of his work in thermochemistry.
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1919 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
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1918 Fritz Haber              Germany        Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut
                                             (now Fritz-Haber-Institut)
     For the synthesis of ammonia from its elements.
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1917 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
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1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
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1915 Richard Willstatter      Germany        Munich University
     For his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll.
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1914 Theodore W. Richards     United States  Harvard University
     In recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of
     a large number of chemical elements.
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1913 Alfred Werner            Switzerland    University of Zurich
     In recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which
     he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields
     of research especially in inorganic chemistry
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1912 Victor Grignard          France         Nancy University
     For the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent
     years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry.

     Paul Sabatier            France         Toulouse University
     For his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of
     finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry
     has been greatly advanced in recent years.
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1911 Marie Curie              France         Sorbonne University
     In recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the
     discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium
     and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element.
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1910 Otto Wallach             Germany        Goettingen University
     In recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical
     industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds.
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1909 Wilhelm Ostwald          Germany        Leipzig University
     In recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into
     the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of
     reaction.
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1908 Ernest Rutherford        United Kingdom,Victoria University
                              New Zealand
     For his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the
     chemistry of radioactive substances.
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1907 Eduard Buchner           Germany        Agricultural College, Berlin
     For his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation.
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1906 Henri Moissan            France         Sorbonne University
     In recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation
     and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service
     of science of the electric furnace called after him.
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1905 Adolf von Baeyer         Germany        Munich University
     In recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry
     and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and
     hydroaromatic compounds.
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1904 Sir William Ramsay       United Kingdom London University
     In recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous
     elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic
     system.
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1903 Svante Arrhenius         Sweden         Stockholm University
     In recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the
     advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation.
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1902 Emil Fischer             Germany        Berlin University
     In recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work
     on sugar and purine syntheses.
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1901 Jacobus H. van ‘t Hoff   Netherlands    Berlin University
     In recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the
     discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in
     solutions.
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Source: nobelprize.org

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