Nobel Prize Winners for Physics: History

Following is a historical table of Nobel Prize Laureates for Physics from the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm.

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Year Nobel Laureate(s)
     Discovery/Contribution   Country        Institution
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2011 Saul Perlmutter          United States  Lawrence Berkeley National
                                             Laboratory
     Brian P. Schmidt         United States/ Australian National University
                              Australia
     Adam G. Riess            United States  Johns Hopkins University,
                                             Space Telescope Science Institute
     For the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through
     observations of distant supernovae
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2010 Andre Geim               Russia/U.K.    University of Manchester
     Konstantin Novoselov     Russia/U.K.    University of Manchester
     For groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional
     material graphene.
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2009 Charles K. Kao           China/U.K.     Standard Telecommunication
                                             Laboratories, Harlow and Chinese
                                             University of Hong Kong
     For groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light
     in fibers for optical communication.
     Willard S. Boyle         United States  Bell Laboratories
     George E. Smith          United States  Bell Laboratories
     For the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor.
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2008 Yoichiro Nambu           United States  Enrico Fermi Institute
     For the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken
     symmetry in subatomic physics.
     Makoto Kobayashi         Japan          High Energy Accelerator
                                             Research Organization
     Toshihide Maskawa        Japan          Yukawa Institute for
                                             Theoretical Physics
     For the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which
     predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature.
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2007 Albert Fert              France         Universite Paris-Sud
     Peter Grunberg           Germany        Forschungszentrum Juelich
     For their discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance
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2006 John C. Mather           United States  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
     George F. Smoot          United States  University of California
     For their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the
     cosmic microwave background radiation.
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2005 Roy J. Glauber           United States  Harvard University
     For his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence.

     John L. Hall             United States  University of Colorado
     Theodor W. Hansch        Germany        Max-Planck Institut
     For their contributions to the development of laser-based
     spectroscopy including the optical frequency comb technique.
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2004 David J. Gross           United States  University of California
     H. David Politzer        United States  Caltech
     Frank Wilczek            United States  MIT
     For the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong
     interaction.
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2003 Alexei A. Abrikosov      USA and Russia Argonne National Laboratory
     Vitaly L. Ginzburg       Russia         P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute
     Anthony J. Leggett       UK and USA     University of Illinois
     For pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and
     superfluids.
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2002 Raymond Davis Jr.        United States  University of Pennsylvania
     Masatoshi Koshiba        Japan          University of Tokyo
     For pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the
     detection of cosmic neutrinos.

     Riccardo Giacconi        United States
     For pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the
     discovery of cosmic X-ray sources.
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2001 Eric A. Cornell          United States  University of Colorado
     Wolfgang Ketterle        Germany        MIT
     Carl E. Wieman           United States  University of Colorado
     For the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute
     gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the
     properties of the condensates.
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2000 Zhores I. Alferov        Russia         A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst.
     Herbert Kroemer          Germany        University of California
     For developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed
     and opto-electronics.

     Jack S. Kilby            United States  Texas Instruments
     For his part in the invention of the integrated circuit.
     All three cited for basic work on information and communication
     technology.
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1999 Gerardus ‘t Hooft        Netherlands    Utrecht University
     Martinus J.G. Veltman    Netherlands    Bilthoven
     For elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in
     physics.
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1998 Robert B. Laughlin       United States  Stanford University
     Horst L. Stormer         Germany        Columbia University
     Daniel C. Tsui           United States  Princeton University
     For their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally
     charged excitations.
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1997 Steven Chu               United States  Stanford University
     Claude Cohen-Tannoudji   France         College de France
     William D. Phillips      United States  National Institute of Standards
     For development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.
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1996 David M. Lee             United States  Cornell University
     Douglas D. Osheroff      United States  Stanford University
     Robert C. Richardson     United States  Cornell University
     For their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3.
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1995 Martin L. Perl           United States  Stanford University
     For the discovery of the tau lepton.

     Frederick Reines         United States  University of California
     For the detection of the neutrino.
     Both cited for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton
     physics.
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1994 Bertram N. Brockhouse    Canada         McMaster University
     For the development of neutron spectroscopy.

     Clifford G. Shull        United States  MIT
     For the development of the neutron diffraction technique.
     Both cited for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron
     scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter.
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1993 Russell A. Hulse         United States  Princeton University
     Joseph H. Taylor Jr.     United States  Princeton University
     For the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has
     opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation.
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1992 Georges Charpak          France         Ecole Superieure de Physique
                                             et Chimie;
                                             CERN, Geneva
     For his invention and development of particle detectors, in
     particular the multiwire proportional chamber.
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1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes  France         College de France
     For discovering that methods developed for studying order
     phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more
     complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and
     polymers.
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1990 Jerome I. Friedman       United States  MIT
     Henry W. Kendall         United States  MIT
     Richard E. Taylor        Canada         Stanford University
     For their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic
     scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which
     have been of essential importance for the development of the
     quark model in particle physics.
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1989 Norman F. Ramsey         United States  Harvard University
     For the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and
     its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks.

     Hans G. Dehmelt          United States  University of Washington
     Wolfgang Paul            Germany        University of Bonn
     For the development of the ion trap technique.
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1988 Leon M. Lederman         United States  Fermi Nat’l Accelerator Laboratory
     Melvin Schwartz          United States  Digital Pathways, Inc.
     Jack Steinberger         United States  CERN, Geneva
     For the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the
     doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon
     neutrino.
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1987 J. Georg Bednorz         Germany        IBM Zurich Research Laboratory
     K. Alex Muller           Switzerland    IBM Zurich Research Laboratory
     For their important break-through in the discovery of
     superconductivity in ceramic materials.
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1986 Ernst Ruska              Germany        Fritz-Haber-Institut
     For his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design
     of the first electron microscope.

     Gerd Binnig              Germany        IBM Zurich Research Laboratory
     Heinrich Rohrer          Switzerland    IBM Zurich Research Laboratory
     For their design of the scanning tunneling microscope.
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1985 Klaus von Klitzing       Germany        Max-Planck Institut
     For the discovery of the quantized Hall effect.
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1984 Carlo Rubbia             Italy          CERN, Geneva
     Simon van der Meer       Netherlands    CERN, Geneva
     For their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to
     the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of
     weak interaction.
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1983 Subramanyan Chandrasekhar United States University of Chicago
     For his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance
     to the structure and evolution of the stars.

     William A. Fowler        United States  Caltech
     For his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions
     of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe.
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1982 Kenneth G. Wilson        United States  Cornell University
     For his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions.
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1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen     United States  Harvard University
     Arthur L. Schawlow       United States  Stanford University
     For their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy.

     Kai M. Siegbahn          Sweden         Uppsala University
     For his contribution to the development of high-resolution
     electron spectroscopy.
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1980 James Cronin             United States  University of Chicago
     Val Fitch                United States  Princeton University
     For the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles
     principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons.
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1979 Sheldon Glashow          United States  Harvard University
     Abdus Salam              Pakistan       International Centre for
                                             Theoretical Physics.
     Steven Weinberg          United States  Harvard University
     For their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and
     electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles,
     including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current.
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1978 Pyotr Kapitsa            USSR           Academy of Sciences, Moscow
     For his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature
     physics.

     Arno Penzias             United States  Bell Laboratories
     Robert Woodrow Wilson    United States  Bell Laboratories
     For their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.
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1977 Philip W. Anderson       United States  Bell Telephone Laboratories
     Sir Nevill F. Mott       United Kingdom University of Cambridge
     John H. van Vleck        United States  Harvard University
     For their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic
     structure of magnetic and disordered systems.
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1976 Burton Richter           United States  Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
     Samuel C.C. Ting         United States  MIT
     For their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary
     particle of a new kind.
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1975 Aage N. Bohr             Denmark        Niels Bohr Institute
     Ben R. Mottelson         Denmark        Nordita
     James Rainwater          United States  Columbia University
     For the discovery of the connection between collective motion and
     particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory
     of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection.
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1974 Martin Ryle              United Kingdom University of Cambridge
     Antony Hewish            United Kingdom University of Cambridge
     For their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his
     observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture
     synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the
     discovery of pulsars.
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1973 Leo Esaki                Japan          IBM Watson Research Center
     Ivar Giaever             United States  General Electric
     For their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in
     semiconductors and superconductors, respectively.

     Brian D. Josephson       United Kingdom University of Cambridge
     For his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent
     through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are
     generally known as the Josephson effects.
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1972 John Bardeen             United States  Univeristy of Illinois
     Leon N. Cooper           United States  Brown University
     Robert Schrieffer        United States  University of Pennsylvania
     For their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called
     the BCS-theory.
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1971 Dennis Gabor             United Kingdom Imperial College, London
     For his invention and development of the holographic method.
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1970 Hannes Alfven            Sweden         Royal Institute of Technology
     For fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with
     fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics.

     Louis Neel               France         University of Grenoble
     For fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism
     ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state
     physics.
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1969 Murray Gell-Mann         United States  Caltech
     For his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification
     of elementary particles and their interactions.
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1968 Luis Alvarez             United States  University of California
     For his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in
     particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states,
     made possible through his development of the technique of using
     hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis.
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1967 Hans Bethe               United States  Cornell University
     For his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially
     his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars.
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1966 Alfred Kastler           France         Ecole Normale Superieure
     For the discovery and development of optical methods for
     studying Hertzian resonances in atoms.
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1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga       Japan          Tokyo University
     Julian Schwinger         United States  Harvard University
     Richard P. Feynman       United States  Caltech
     For their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with
     deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary
     particles.
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1964 Charles H. Townes        United Sates   MIT
     Nicolay G. Basov         USSR           P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute
     Aleksandr M. Prokhorov   USSR           P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute
     for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which
     has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on
     the maser-laser principle
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1963 Eugene Wigner            United States  Princeton University
     For his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the
     elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application
     of fundamental symmetry principles.

     Maria Goeppert-Mayer     United States  University of California
     J. Hans D. Jensen        Germany        University of Heidelberg
     For their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure.
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1962 Lev Landau               USSR           Academy of Sciences, Moscow
     For his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially
     liquid helium.
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1961 Robert Hofstadter        United States  Stanford University
     For his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei
     and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the
     nucleons.

     Rudolf Mossbauer         Germany        Technical University Munich
     For his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation
     and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name.
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1960 Donald A. Glaser         United States  University of California
     For the invention of the bubble chamber.
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1959 Emilio Segre             United States  University of California
     Owen Chamberlain         United States  University of California
     For their discovery of the antiproton.
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1958 Pavel A. Cherenkov       USSR           P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute
     Il´ja M. Frank           USSR           University of Moscow,
                                             P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute
     Igor Y. Tamm             USSR           University of Moscow,
                                             P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute
     For the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect.
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1957 Chen Ning Yang           China          Institute for Advanced Study
     Tsung-Dao Lee            China          Columbia University
     For their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws
     which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary
     particles.
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1956 William B. Shockley      United States  Beckman Instruments, Inc.
     John Bardeen             United States  University of Illinois
     Walter H. Brattain       United States  Bell Telephone Laboratories
     For their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the
     transistor effect.
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1955 Willis E. Lamb           United States  Stanford University
     For his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum.

     Polykarp Kusch           United States  Columbia University
     For his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron.
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1954 Max Born                 United Kingdom Edinburgh University
     For his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his
     statistical interpretation of the wavefunction.

     Walther Bothe            Germany        University of Heidelberg
     For the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith.
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1953 Frits Zernike            Netherlands    Groningen University
     For his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his
     invention of the phase contrast microscope.
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1952 Felix Bloch              United States  Stanford University
     E. M. Purcell            United States  Harvard University
     For their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision
     measurements and discoveries in connection therewith.
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1951 John Cockcroft           United Kingdom Atomic Energy Research Est.
     Ernest T.S. Walton       Ireland        Trinity College
     For their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by
     artificially accelerated atomic particles.
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1950 Cecil Powell             United Kingdom Bristol University
     For his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear
     processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method.
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1949 Hideki Yukawa            Japan          Kyoto Imperial University
     For his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of
     theoretical work on nuclear forces.
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1948 Patrick M.S. Blackett    United Kingdom Victoria University
     For his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his
     discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic
     radiation.
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1947 Edward V. Appleton       United Kingdom Department of Scientific
                                             and Industrial Research
     For his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere
     especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer.
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1946 Percy W. Bridgman        United States  Harvard University
     For the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures,
     and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high
     pressure physics.
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1945 Wolfgang Pauli           Austria        Princeton University
     For the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli
     Principle.
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1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi        United States  Columbia University
     For his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic
     nuclei.
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1943 Otto Stern               United States  Carnegie Institute of Technology
     For his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and
     his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton.
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1942 One-third of the prize money was allocated to the Main Fund and
     two-thirds allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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1941 One-third of the prize money was allocated to the Main Fund and
     two-thirds allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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1940 One-third of the prize money was allocated to the Main Fund and
     two-thirds allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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1939 Ernest Lawrence          United States  University of California
     For the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results
     obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive
     elements.
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1938 Enrico Fermi             Italy          Rome University
     For his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements
     produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of
     nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons.
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1937 Clinton Davisson         United States  Bell Telephone Laboratories
     George Paget Thomson     United Kingdom London University
     For their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by
     crystals.
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1936 Victor F. Hess           Austria        Innsbruck University
     For his discovery of cosmic radiation.

     Carl D. Anderson                        Caltech
     For his discovery of the positron.
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1935 James Chadwick           United Kingdom Liverpool Univeristy
     For the discovery of the neutron.
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1934 One-third of the prize money was allocated to the Main Fund and
     two-thirds allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.
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1933 Erwin Schrodinger        Austria        Berlin University
     Paul A.M. Dirac          United Kingdom University of Cambridge
     For the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory.
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1932 Werner Heisenberg        Germany        Leipzig University
     For the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has,
     inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen.
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1931 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
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1930 Venkata Raman            India          Calcutta University
     For his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the
     effect named after him.
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1929 Louis de Broglie         France         Sorbonne University
     For his discovery of the wave nature of electrons.
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1928 Owen Willans Richardson  United Kingdom London University
     For his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the
     discovery of the law named after him.
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1927 Arthur H. Compton        United States  University of Chicago
     For his discovery of the effect named after him.

     C.T.R. Wilson                           University of Cambridge
     For his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles
     visible by condensation of vapor.
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1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin     France         Sorbonne University
     For his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially
     for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium.
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1925 James Franck             Germany        Goettingen University
     Gustav Hertz             Germany        Halle University
     For their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon
     an atom.
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1924 Manne Siegbahn           Sweden         Uppsala University
     For his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy.
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1923 Robert A. Millikan       United States  Caltech
     For his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the
     photoelectric effect.
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1922 Niels Bohr               Denmark        Copenhagen University
     For his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and
     of the radiation emanating from them.
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1921 Albert Einstein          Germany &      Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now
                              Switzerland    Max-Planck Institut)
     For his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his
     discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.
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1920 Charles E. Guillaume     Switzerland    International Bureau of Weights
                                             and Measures
     In recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements
     in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys.
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1919 Johannes Stark           Germany        Greifswald University
     For his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting
     of spectral lines in electric fields.
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1918 Max Planck               Germany        Berlin University
     In recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics
     by his discovery of energy quanta.
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1917 Charles Glover Barkla    United Kingdom Edinburgh University
     For his discovery of the characteristic Roentgen radiation of the elements.
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1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
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1915 William Bragg            United Kingdom London University
     Lawrence Bragg           United Kingdom Victoria University
     For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays.
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1914 Max von Laue             Germany        Frankfurt University
     For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.
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1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes   Netherlands    Leiden University
     For his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures
     which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium.
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1912 Gustaf Dalen             Sweden         Swedish Gas-Accumulator Co.
     For his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with
     gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys.
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1911 Wilhelm Wien             Germany        Wurzburg University
     For his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat.
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1910 Johannes Diderik         Netherlands    Amsterdam University
          van der Waals
     For his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids.
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1909 Guglielmo Marconi        Italy          Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. Ltd.
     Ferdinand Braun          Germany        Strasbourg University
     In recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless
     telegraphy.
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1908 Gabriel Lippmann         France         Sorbonne University
     For his method of reproducing colors photographically based on the
     phenomenon of interference.
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1907 Albert A. Michelson      United States  University of Chicago
     For his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and
     metrological investigations carried out with their aid.
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1906 J.J. Thomson             United Kingdom University of Cambridge
     In recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental
     investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases.
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1905 Philipp Lenard           Germany        Kiel University
     For his work on cathode rays.
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1904 Lord Rayleigh            United Kingdom Royal Institution of Great Britain
     For his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and
     for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies.
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1903 Henri Becquerel          France         Ecole Polytechnique
     In recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his
     discovery of spontaneous radioactivity.

     Pierre Curie             France         Ecole municipale de physique
                                             et de chimie industrielles
     Marie Curie              France
     in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their
     joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor
     Henri Becquerel.
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1902 Hendrik A. Lorentz       Netherlands    Leiden University
     Pieter Zeeman            Netherlands    Amsterdam University
     In recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their
     researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena.
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1901 Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen   Germany        Munich University
     In recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the
     discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him.
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Source: nobelprize.org

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