Recovery in U.S. May Be Too Weak to Avoid Risk of Deflation

Bargains are everywhere in America these days. Men’s shirts and sweaters were 3.4 percent cheaper this April than a year earlier. Prices also fell for eggs, peanut butter, bananas, potatoes, hotel and motel rooms, cosmetics, curtains, rugs, tools, and lawn care.

Excluding gasoline and other energy items, the consumer price index (SPX) rose just 0.9 percent for the year. That’s the smallest increase since January 1962, when John F. Kennedy was president, Bloomberg Businessweek reports in its May 31 issue.

Everybody likes to save money, but flat to falling prices are not entirely good. They’re a symptom of continued weakness nearly a year after the U.S. economy supposedly hit bottom. The same softness of demand that keeps goods cheap is pressuring workers. Annual growth of average hourly earnings fell from 3.5 percent in April 2007 to 1.6 percent this April.

The economic recovery, while welcome, isn’t yet strong enough to ensure against the risk of deflation, in which prices fall across the board for an extended period. Deflation caused by a shortfall in demand can be dangerous. People delay purchases, waiting for lower prices, which exacerbates the slowdown. Bankruptcies rise because even though pay falls, debt levels don’t. To keep deflation at bay, the Federal Reserve’s Open Market Committee voted in April to keep the federal funds rate at near zero. Even with an overhang of more than $1 trillion of excess reserves in the banking system, ready to be lent, committee members cut their inflation forecasts by 0.2 percentage point between the January and April meetings, to a range of 1.2 percent to 1.5 percent for this year.

Dollar’s Gain

Turmoil in Europe is amplifying the risk of deflation in the U.S. It’s driving up the dollar’s value (DXY), making American goods less competitive in world markets and retarding growth. Europe’s problems also are pushing down the U.S. stock market, which makes consumers fearful and less likely to spend. The Standard & Poor’s 500 Index has fallen nearly 12 percent from its April high.

A sharp decline in oil prices since the end of April shows that growth worries are worldwide, since it’s global demand that determines the price of oil. Crude hit $70 a barrel in late May, down from $86 at the end of April. Gold is moving the other way, rising to nearly $1,200 an ounce by late May from a recent low of less than $900 in April 2009, as investors seek a refuge from chancy markets and banks.

All the grim indicators have made their mark. “Call it a nightmare,” says one of the most prominent bears, David A. Rosenberg, chief economist and strategist at the Toronto-based investment firm of Gluskin Sheff & Associates.

Excess Capacity

The decline of output during the 2007-09 recession was so steep that there’s still a huge amount of excess productive capacity. According to Federal Reserve data, only 69 percent of total industry capacity (CPTICHNG) was used in April, versus an average of 81 percent in the previous 38 years. As for labor, the unemployment rate remains stubbornly high because every uptick in hiring encourages more people to start looking for work again and thus boost the official jobless rate (USURTOT).

The optimistic take on the economy is that the threat of deflation is temporary and will diminish as excess capacity gets eaten up. Kurt Karl, chief U.S. economist of Swiss Re, says employment gains are producing income that will be spent, generating more jobs and more spending in a virtuous upward spiral.

“I’m still bullish,” says Karl, adding, “employment growth has turned a major corner.” Deflation, he adds, “would be a permanent kind of problem only if you didn’t have any employment momentum.”

Jobless Rate

He predicts a decrease in the unemployment rate from 9.9 percent in April to about 9.5 percent at the end of 2010 and about 8 percent at the end of 2011.

Certainly there are some signs of progress. On May 25 the Conference Board announced that its May index of consumer confidence (CONCCONF) rose to the highest level since March 2008. MasterCard Advisors’ SpendingPulse measure of consumer purchases has ticked up sharply since early 2009.

Luxury retail chains including Barneys New York and Saks Inc. (SKX) are scaling back discounts and promotions they offered to attract shoppers during the recession. Tiffany & Co. (TIF) raised prices across the store. Consultants Bain & Co. say U.S. sales of luxury goods may rise 4 percent in 2010 after declining 16 percent in 2009.

There are worrisome signs, though, that the recovery could stall.

Confidence ‘Fragile’

Employment has been boosted by the Census Bureau’s temporary hiring for the decennial census, but as summer approaches that source of employment will fade. Job creation will slow as the year goes on and be “anemic” in 2011, predicts Rajeev Dhawan, director of the Economic Forecasting Center at Georgia State University’s J. Mack Robinson College of Business. Says Sumit Chandra, a supply chain expert who is a partner at A.T. Kearney consultants: “The recovery is real. It’s happening. But I think the magnitude of the recovery, the level of confidence we have in it, is fragile.”

Kelly Services Inc., the Troy, Michigan-based temporary help firm, sees the tentativeness of the expansion at ground level. Demand for its services is strong because companies “want to maintain maximum flexibility” in case the recovery fades, says George S. Corona, the temp help firm’s executive vice-president.

Meanwhile, upward pressure on wages is nil in most segments, says Corona. “We have a lot of resumes coming in the door,” he says. “We’re not having to work hard to find people.” Exactly. Cheap shirts and sweaters are cold comfort for unemployed people who are sitting at home in their pajamas.

To contact the reporter on this story: Peter Coy in New York at

To contact the editor responsible for this story: Christopher Power in New York at

Press spacebar to pause and continue. Press esc to stop.

Bloomberg reserves the right to remove comments but is under no obligation to do so, or to explain individual moderation decisions.

Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus.