Q: Where are the most promising areas of innovation?
A: There are a lot of them. One is nanotechnology. Semiconductors are getting smaller and are already in the nanotechnology regime, which is basically the size of atoms. We are just on the verge of being able to create materials and devices that don't exist in nature but are modeled on biological principals. There are already nanodevices that are reaching the size of atoms, where things become quantum-mechanical, and we need to do a lot of research in science and engineering to get them to work effectively.