A sweeping new anti-terrorism bill drafted by the Justice Department would
dramatically increase government electronic surveillance and data collection
abilities, and impose the first-ever federal criminal penalties for using
encryption in the U.S.
A draft of the Domestic Security Enhancement Act of 2003 dated January 9th
was obtained by the non-partisan Center for Public Integrity and released
Friday. The 120-page proposal would further expand many of the surveillance
powers Congress granted federal law enforcement in the USA-PATRIOT Act in
2001, while increasing the secrecy surrounding some government functions.
The Justice Department hasn't released the proposal publicly, nor has it
been formally submitted to lawmakers, but a legislative "control sheet"
attached to the bill [pdf] indicates that review copies were sent to Speaker of the
House Dennis Hastert, and Vice President Richard Cheney last month. In a
written statement Friday, a Justice Department spokesperson said it would be
"premature to speculate on any future decisions, particularly ideas or
proposals that are still being discussed at staff levels."
Civil liberties groups are already calling the bill "Patriot II".
"I just don't know where to start, it's just expanding everything," says Lee
Tien, staff attorney at the Electronic Frontier Foundation. "When this hits
the Hill there's going to be a lot more talk about what's going on, as
opposed to the Patriot Act, where Congress just went on the government's
One provision in the bill would represent America's first domestic
regulation of encryption, though it would apply only to those already
attempting to commit a federal crime.
The new law against "Unlawful use of encryption" would establish prison
terms for anyone who "knowingly and willfully uses encryption technology to
conceal any incriminating communication" relating to a federal crime that
they're committing, or attempting to commit. Offenders would face up to ten
years in prison, in addition to the jail time the underlying crime carries,
if any. A Justice Department analysis included with the proposal suggests
that the illegal encrypting carry a mandatory minimum term of five years in
Similar language has appeared in other government proposals dating back to
the mid-1990's. But as encryption becomes more integrated into everyday
Internet use, the idea of establishing a special punishment for using crypto
borders on the ludicrous, says Tien. "As more and more Internet
communications use encryption, it's going to be the default... It's like
saying if you use a payphone you should go to jail."
Other provisions in the bill would:
Allow a federal judge in one part of the country to issue a search
warrant for a location in another part of the country in cases involving the
suspected financing of terrorist organizations, attacks on critical
infrastructure, or computer crime. The USA-PATRIOT Act allowed such
inter-jurisdictional searches only in terrorism cases.
Eliminate the requirement that federal agents issue a subpoena or
obtain a court order to access someone's credit report. Under the bill,
agents would only need to certify that they will use the information "in
connection with their duties to enforce federal law" to secretly gain access
to a consumer's credit profile.
Expand grand jury secrecy rules to apply to witnesses, allowing
prosecutors to order ordinary citizens not to divulge the existence of a
grand jury investigation, or their own testimony, to anyone except an
attorney. Current grand jury secrecy rules apply only to jurors, prosecutors
and courtroom staff.
Permit federal agents to monitor both voice and Internet communications
from a target's Web-enabled cell phone, and to access the contents of the
device's memory, with a single court order
Expand the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act that governs U.S.
spying on foreign nationals, and make it easy for agents to share foreign
intelligence information with criminal investigators.
Many of the over 100 changes to federal law proposed in the bill don't
involve the Internet. Among other things, the Domestic Security Enhancement
Act would codify the Justice Department's position that the government
doesn't have to identify detainees held in terrorism investigations unless
they're charged with a crime. Another provision would expand a federal DNA
databases of suspected terrorists. The bill would also strip some suspected
American terrorists of their citizenship. By Kevin Poulsen