Mar. 19, 1943, son of a banker, in Varese, north of Milan.
Earned degree in economics and management from Bocconi University in 1965. Appointed professor of monetary theory in 1971, becoming rector of Bocconi in 1989 and president in 1994. Also studied economics at Yale University in 1968-69.
Helped draft Italy's first law on competition and was a key player in banking reform in late 1980s.
Commissioner for Internal Market, 1995-99; Commissioner for Competition, 1999-2004.
Books, mountain biking, Inter Milan soccer club, operas at La Scala.