Investment in the transmission grid has lagged far behind growth in peak-period demand. New York, Boston, and San Francisco, among other places, need new high-voltage lines to import more power.
In places where power can't be imported by stringing new cables, shortages can be solved by building new plants closer to customers to generate power locally.
Often, cutting peak demand is cheaper than scrambling to create new supply. That means bribing customers to shut down equipment when the grid is under strain. New software makes this process more efficient.