Linde expert to discuss using energized solutions in hydraulic fracturing to improve economics and productivity at geologists'

 Linde expert to discuss using energized solutions in hydraulic fracturing to
         improve economics and productivity at geologists' conference

PR Newswire

MURRAY HILL, N.J. and NEW PROVIDENCE, N.J., Oct. 22, 2013

MURRAY HILL, N.J.and NEW PROVIDENCE, N.J., Oct. 22, 2013 /PRNewswire/ --The
value of using energized solutions for hydraulic fracturing in the extraction
of hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs is the subject of a paper to be
presented by Robin Watts, Oil & Gas Technology manager of Linde LLC, at the
American Institute of Professional Geologists (AIPG) conference.


The conference will be held from October 23 -26 2013 at the Omni Interlocken
Resort in Broomfield, Colorado. The American Institute of Professional
Geologists (AIPG), founded in 1963, is the largest association dedicated to
promoting geology as a profession.

In her paper, Watts will show how energized solutions incorporating nitrogen
or carbon dioxide can increase the overall productivity of wells while also
reducing the water needed for the fracturing process.She discusses how the
use of energized fluids in the production of hydrocarbons from unconventional
reservoirs, such as tight gas formations and shale, may be advantageous in a
variety of situations. These include depleted, or water sensitive formations,
when producers encounter poor water flowback or blocking (high fluid
retention), and for enhanced mobility of more viscous hydrocarbons around the

"The addition of highly soluble carbon dioxide gas is ideal to provide energy
to aqueous solutions to facilitate flowback," Watts says. "However, when
nitrogen gas is more readily available, additional measures are available for
engineers to use to ensure that the energized solutions adequately penetrate
the invaded zone where extraction occurs."

Watts emphasizes that the variability inherent in unconventional reservoirs
requires tailoring stimulation solutions to the unique circumstances of the
site in order to optimize well productivity. Key factors include maximizing
Expected Ultimate Recovery (EUR) and the lifetime potential recovery of the
well; ensuring effective production occurs sooner rather than later; and
minimizing reservoir damage, needed material and labor inputs, and total
fracturing costs. She also recommends the use of mini-test fracturings, when
possible, to allow calibration and optimization of the operational design.

Energized solutions can add value at every stage of treatment, but are
essential for refracturing operations, where they can overcome low pressure
and capillary forces and enhance the mobility of more viscous hydrocarbons.
Energized refracturing has been successful in a wide variety of fields and

"The huge increase in shale gas activity has brought many new operators into
the field, and my goal in this presentation is to introduce our new colleagues
to the expertise developed over the years on how and when use of energized
solutions can provide excellent economic and environmental returns," adds
Watts. "Energized solutions currently are estimated to comprise about
one-third of all fracturing operations in North America, and we believe that
the data clearly demonstrate the benefits of using energized fracturing in a
variety of situations. Reported results indicate that well-managed energized
fluid fracturing has the potential to achieve significantly more gas recovery
than non-energized approaches, at the same time that it makes production in
water-restricted locations more feasible."

Linde LLC is an affiliate of Linde North America, a member of The Linde Group,
a world-leading gases and engineering company with around 62,000 employees in
more than 100 countries worldwide. In the 2012 financial year, Linde generated
revenue of EUR 15.280 bn (USD 19.9 bn). The strategy of The Group is geared
towards long-term profitable growth and focuses on the expansion of its
international business with forward-looking products and services. Linde acts
responsibly towards its shareholders, business partners, employees, society
and the environment – in every one of its business areas, regions and
locations across the globe. The company is committed to technologies and
products that unite the goals of customer value and sustainable development.

For more information, see The Linde Group online at

SOURCE Linde North America

Contact: Amy Ficon, Linde Corporate Communications, Phone: 908- 771-1491,
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