Lithium Market Becoming More Reliant on Batteries for Continued Strong Demand Growth

Lithium Market Becoming More Reliant on Batteries for Continued Strong Demand
                                    Growth

  PR Newswire

  LONDON, May 16, 2013

LONDON, May 16, 2013 /PRNewswire/ --

Rise in Consumption and Future Demand Driven by Lithium-ion Batteries

Roskill estimates that rechargeable batteries accounted for 27% of global
lithium consumption in 2012, up from 15% in 2007 and 8% in 2002. This end-use
was responsible for 44% of the net increase in lithium consumption over the
last ten years, and 70% over the last five years. In the base-case growth
scenario it is expected to contribute 75% of the growth in forecast demand to
2017, when total demand for lithium is expected to reach slightly over
238,000t lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE).

Other end-uses, including glass-ceramics, greases and polymers, have also
shown high rates of growth, but are predicted to moderate over the next five
years as emerging economy growth slows. The lithium industry is therefore
becoming more reliant on rechargeable batteries to sustain high rates of
future demand growth. In addition, in the period to 2017 Roskill forecasts
that the main market driver for lithium-ion batteries will gradually switch
from portable consumer electronics to electric vehicles, especially hybrid
variants.

Reflecting the concentration of lithium-ion battery manufacturers and
associated cathode material producers in China, Japan and South Korea, the
East Asia region has become an increasingly important consumer of lithium
products over the last decade. In 2012, East Asia accounted for 60% of total
global consumption with Europe accounting for a further 24% and North America
9%.

Growing Supply-side Pressure is Predicted to Stall Further Lithium Price Rises

Roskill's analysis suggests that the price of technical-grade lithium
carbonate, the main product produced and consumed in the lithium market,
recovered some of its global economic downturn losses as the market tightened
in 2012, averaging US$5,300/t CIF, up 15% from 2010. This is below the 2007
peak of US$6,500/t, but well above the US$2,000-3,000/t levels seen in the
early 2000s.

Lithium extraction, which totalled over 168,000t LCE in 2012, is undertaken
predominately in Australia, Chile, Argentina and China, with roughly half of
lithium output from hard rock sources and half from brine. Production is
dominated by Talison Lithium in Australia, SQM and Rockwood Lithium in Chile,
and FMC in Argentina. Just over two-thirds of lithium minerals extracted in
Australia are processed into downstream chemical products in China, where
producers such as Tianqi Lithium (who recently acquired Talison to secure a
captive supply of mineral feedstock) operate mineral conversion plants.

Galaxy Resources commissioned a new 17,000tpy LCE mineral conversion plant in
China in 2012. Canada Lithium is in the process of commissioning a 20,000tpy
LCE plant in Quebec and several existing Chinese mineral conversion plants are
also expanding capacity. FMC has increased brine-based processing capacity by
a third in Argentina, while nearby Orocobre is also constructing a new
brine-based operation due to be completed in 2014. In addition, Rockwood
Lithium plans to complete a 20,000tpy LCE expansion in Chile in 2014.
Combined, this additional capacity totals just under 100,000tpy LCE, enough to
meet forecast demand to 2017.

As the opening of new and expanded capacity is concentrated over the next two
years, Roskill forecasts that the lithium market could witness increased
competition and supply-side pressure on pricing, with prices for
technical-grade lithium carbonate potentially falling back to around
US$5,000/t CIF in 2014.

Lithium: Market Outlook to 2017 (12 ^th  edition) is available at a price of
£4900 / US$7900 / €6200 from Roskill Information Services Ltd, 54 Russell
Road, London SW19 1QL ENGLAND.

Tel: +44-(0)20-8417-0087. Fax +44-(0)20-8417-1308.

Email: info@roskill.co.uk Web: http://www.roskill.com/lithium

Note to editors

The report contains 426 pages, 245 tables and 99 figures. It provides a
detailed review of the industry, with subsections on the activities of the
leading producing companies. It also analyses consumption, trade and prices.

                              Table of Contents

                                                                          Page

1.   Summary  1

2.   Lithium Mineralogy, Occurrences and Reserves  10

2.1   Occurrence of lithium  10

2.1.1   Lithium minerals  10

2.1.2   Lithium clays  12

2.1.3   Lithium brines  12

2.2   Lithium reserves  14

3.   Lithium mining and processing  16

3.1   Extraction and processing of lithium brines  17

3.1.1   Other methods of brine extraction  20

3.2   Mining and processing of lithium minerals  21

3.3   Processing lithium mineral concentrates to lithium compounds  23

3.4   Processing lithium bearing clays into lithium compounds  26

3.5   Lithium compounds and chemicals  27

3.6   Production costs  30

4.   Production of lithium  34

4.1   Lithium production by source  35

4.1.1   Production of Lithium Minerals  37

4.1.2   Production from Lithium Brines  39

4.1.3   Production of lithium compounds from mineral conversion  41

4.1.4   Production of downstream lithium chemicals  43

4.2 Outlook for production capacity of lithium to 2017  44

4.2.1   Outlook for production capacity of lithium minerals  45

4.2.2   Outlook for lithium production capacity from brines  48

4.2.3   Outlook on lithium compound production from mineral conversion 
51

4.3   Forecast production of lithium to 2017  52

5.   Review of lithium producing countries  55

5.1   Afghanistan  55

5.2   Argentina  56

5.2.1   FMC Litihum (MineradelAltiplano S.A.)  58

5.2.2   ADY Resources  59

5.2.3   Lithium Americas  61

5.2.4   Galaxy Resources (Lithium 1)  66

5.2.4.1  Sal de Vida Project  66

5.2.4.2  James Bay Hard-rock Lithium Project  68

5.2.5   Orocobre Ltd.  69

5.2.5.1  Salar de Olaroz  71

5.2.5.2  Salinas Grandes (Cangrejillo)  74

5.2.5.3  Guayatoyoc Project  74

5.2.5.4  Cauchari Project  75

5.2.6   Rodinia Lithium Inc.  76

5.2.6.1  Rodinia Lithium USA  78

5.2.7   Marifil Mines Ltd.  78

5.2.8   International Lithium Corporation  79

5.2.9   Other prospects for Lithium Production  79

5.3   Australia  80

5.3.1   Talison Lithium  82

5.3.1.1  Resources and Reserves  82

5.3.1.2  Production  85

5.3.1.3  Products  86

5.3.2   Galaxy Resources Ltd.  87

5.3.2.1  Reserves and Resources  88

5.3.2.2  Production  90

5.3.3   Reed Resources Ltd.  91

5.3.4   Altura Mining Ltd.  92

5.3.5   Artemis Resources  93

5.3.6   Amerilithium  93

5.3.7   Reward Minerals  93

5.4   Austria  93

5.5   Belgium  94

5.6   Bolivia  96

5.6.1   Salar de Uyuni  97

5.6.2   Salar de Coipasa  99

5.6.3   New World Resource Corp.  99

5.7   Brazil  100

5.7.1   CompanhiaBrasileira de Litio  102

5.7.2   Arqueana de Minérios e Metais Ltda.  103

5.7.3   Advance Metallurgical Group (AMG)  104

5.8   Canada  104

5.8.1   Lithium resources in Canada  105

5.8.2   Canadian trade in lithium  107

5.8.3   Past producers of lithium in Canada  108

5.8.3.1  Tantalum Mining Corp. of Canada Ltd. (TANCO)  108

5.8.4   Potential new producers of lithium in Canada  109

5.8.4.1  Canada Lithium Corp.  109

5.8.4.2  Nemaska Lithium  112

5.8.4.3  Avalon Rare Metals Inc.  115

5.8.4.4  Perilya Limited  116

5.8.4.5  Rock Tech Lithium Inc.  117

5.8.4.6  Critical Elements Corporation  120

5.8.4.7  Glen Eagle Resources Inc.  120

5.8.4.8  Aben Resources Ltd.  121

5.8.4.9  Toxco Inc. Canada  122

5.8.4.10 Other Canadian Lithium Projects  122

5.9   Chile  126

5.9.1   Chilean lithium reserves  127

5.9.2   Chilean lithium production  127

5.9.3   Special Lithium Operations Contracts (CEOLs)  128

5.9.4   SociedadQuímica y Minera  129

5.9.4.1  Reserves and Resources  130

5.9.4.2  Production  131

5.9.4.3  Products  132

5.9.4.4  Markets  134

5.9.4.5  Exports  135

5.9.5  Rockwood Litihum (Salar de Atacama and La Negra Plant)  136

5.9.6   Simbalik Group  138

5.9.7   Li3 Energy Inc.  139

5.9.7.1  Maricunga Property  139

5.9.7.2  Li3 Energy Peruvian Projects  141

5.9.8   First Potash Corp.  141

5.9.9   CODELCO  142

5.9.10   Mammoth Energy Group Inc.  142

5.9.11   Lomiko Metals Inc.  143

5.9.12   Errázuriz Lithium  143

5.9.13   Exports of litihum from Chile  143

5.10   China  146

5.10.1Chinese reserves of lithium  147

5.10.1.1 Lithium Mineral Reserves  147

5.10.1.2 Lithium Brine Reserves  148

5.10.2   Production of lithium  149

5.10.2.1 Mineral Production  150

5.10.2.2 Brine Production  151

5.10.2.3 Lithium Chemicals and Metal Production  152

5.10.3   Chinese trade in lithium  155

5.10.4   Chinese lithium brine producers  157

5.10.4.1 Tibet Lithium New Technology Development Co. Ltd.  157

5.10.4.2 Qinghai CITIC Guoan Technology Development Co. Ltd.  159

5.10.4.3 Qinghai Salt Lake Industry Co. Ltd.  160

5.10.4.4 Qinghai Lanke Lithium Industry Co. Ltd.  161

5.10.4.5 Tibet Sunrise Mining Development Ltd.  162

5.10.4.6 China MinMetals Non-Ferrous Metals Co. Ltd  163

5.10.5   Chinese lithium mineral producers  163

5.10.5.1 Fujian Huamin Import & Export Co. Ltd.  163

5.10.5.2 YichunHuili Industrial Co. Ltd.  164

5.10.5.3 GanZiRongda Lithium Co., Ltd.  164

5.10.5.4 Sichuan HidiliDexin Mineral Industry  165

5.10.5.5 Xinjiang Non-Ferrous Metals (Group) Ltd.  166

5.10.6   Chinese lithium mineral producers with mineral conversion capacity
 166

5.10.6.1 Jiangxi Western Resources Lithium Industry  166

5.10.6.2 Sichuan Aba Guangsheng Lithium Co. Ltd.  167

5.10.6.3 Minfeng Lithium Co. Ltd.  167

5.10.6.4 Sichuan Ni&CoGuorun New Materials Co. Ltd.  168

5.10.7   Chinese mineral conversion plants  169

5.10.7.1 Sichuan Tianqi Lithium Shareholding Co. Ltd.  169

5.10.7.2 Galaxy Resources (Jiangsu Lithium Carbonate Plant)  171

5.10.7.3 General Lithium (Haimen) Corp.  172

5.10.7.4 China Non-Ferrous Metal Import & Export Xinjiang Corp.  173

5.10.7.5 Sichuan State Lithium Materials Co. Ltd.  174

5.10.7.6 Jiangxi Ganfeng Lithium Co. Ltd.  174

5.10.7.7 Sichuan Chenghehua Lithium Technology Co. Ltd.  176

5.10.8   Chinese lithium chemical producers  176

5.10.9   Specialist lithium bromide producers  177

5.10.10  Specialist lithium metal producers  178

5.11   Czech Republic  179

5.12   Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)  179

5.13   Finland  180

5.13.1   KeliberOy  180

5.13.2   Nortec Minerals Corp.  181

5.13.3   Leviäkangas Deposit  182

5.13.4   Syväjärvi Deposit  182

5.14   France  182

5.15   Germany  184

5.15.1   Rockwood Lithium (Langelsheim Plant)  185

5.15.2   Helm AG  185

5.15.3   Lithium exploration in Germany  185

5.16   Greece  186

5.17   India  186

5.17.1   FMC India Private Ltd.  188

5.17.2   Rockwood Lithium  188

5.18   Ireland  189

5.19   Israel  189

5.20   Japan  190

5.21   Kazakhstan  192

5.22   Mali  193

5.23   Mexico  193

5.23.1   LitioMex S.A. de C.V. (PieroSutti S.A. de C.V.)  193

5.23.2   First Potash Corp. (Mexico)  195

5.23.3   Bacanora Minerals Ltd.  195

5.24   Mongolia  196

5.25   Mozambique  196

5.26   Namibia  197

5.27   Netherlands  198

5.28   Portugal  199

5.28.1   SociedadMineira de Pegmatites  200

5.29   Russia  200

5.29.1   Russian Lithium Reserves and Resources  201

5.29.2   Russian Lithium Production  202

5.29.2.1 JSC Chemical and Metallurgical Plant  202

5.29.2.2 JSC Novosibirsk Chemical Concentration Plant  203

5.29.3   Russian Imports and Exports of Lithium  204

5.30   Serbia  205

5.31   South Africa  206

5.32   South Korea  206

5.33   Spain  207

5.33.1   Minera Del Duero  208

5.33.2   Solid Resources Ltd.  209

5.34   Taiwan  209

5.35   Tajikistan  210

5.36   Turkey  210

5.37   UK  211

5.38   Ukraine  212

5.39   USA  212

5.39.1Trade in lithium to/from the USA  213

5.39.2   Rockwood Lithium (Chemetall Group)  214

5.39.2.1 Silver Peak, Kings Mountain and New Johnsonville operations (USA) 
215

5.39.3   FMC Corporation  216

5.39.3.1 FMC Lithium  217

5.39.3.2 Other FMC Corporation facilities  218

5.39.4   Western Lithium Corporation  219

5.39.5   Simbol Materials Corp.  222

5.39.6   Albemarle Corporation  223

5.39.7   Toxco Inc.  223

5.39.8   AusAmerican Mining Corp. Ltd.  223

5.39.9   Other USA Companies  224

5.40   Uzbekistan  226

5.41   Zimbabwe  226

5.41.1Bikita Minerals Ltd  227

5.41.2   Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation  228

5.41.3   Premier African Minerals  228

5.41.4   Cape Range Ltd.  229

6.   International trade in lithium  230

6.1   Trade in lithium carbonate  230

6.2   Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxides  233

6.3   Trade in lithium chloride  236

6.4   Trade in mineral concentrates  237

6.5   Trade in lithium brines  238

7.   Consumption of lithium  239

7.1   Consumption of lithium by end-use  239

7.2   Consumption of lithium by country/region  243

7.3   Consumption of lithium by product  245

7.4   Outlook for consumption of lithium by end-use  247

7.5   Outlook for lithium consumption by product  251

8.   Use of lithium in rechargeable batteries  253

8.1   Types of rechargeable batteries  253

8.1.1   Lithium-ion batteries  254

8.1.2Lithium metal polymer batteries  256

8.1.3   Lithium-sulphur batteries  256

8.1.4   Lithium-air batteries  258

8.1.5   NiMH and NiCd batteries  258

8.2   Production of rechargeable batteries  258

8.2.1   Producers of rechargeable lithium batteries  261

8.2.2   Producers of nickel metal hydride batteries  262

8.3   Production of rechargeable lithium battery materials  262

8.3.1   Producers of rechargeable lithium battery materials  264

8.3.1.1  Cathode materials  264

8.3.1.2  Electrolyte salts  267

8.3.1.3  Anode materials  268

8.4   Consumption of rechargeable lithium batteries  268

8.4.1   Computing, communication and consumer (3C) market  269

8.4.2   Power devices and motive power  270

8.4.3   Heavy duty applications  272

8.4.4   Transportation  272

8.5   Consumption of NiMH and NiCd batteries  274

8.6   Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries  274

8.7   Outlook for demand for rechargeable batteries  278

8.8   Outlook for consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries  281

9.   Use of lithium in ceramics  284

9.1   Use of lithium in ceramics  284

9.2   Production and consumption of ceramics  286

9.2.1   Ceramic tiles  287

9.2.1.1  Producers of ceramic tiles  289

9.2.2   Sanitaryware  291

9.2.2.1  Producers of sanitaryware  291

9.2.3   Tableware  293

9.2.3.1  Producers of tableware  294

9.2.4   Cookware and bakeware  295

9.3   Production and consumption of glazes and enamels  295

9.3.1   Producers of glazes and enamels  297

9.4   Outlook for ceramics production and consumption  298

9.5   Consumption of lithium in ceramics  299

9.5.1   Outlook for lithium demand in ceramics  300

10.   Use of lithium in glass-ceramics  302

10.1   Use of lithium in glass-ceramics  302

10.2   Production and consumption of glass-ceramics  304

10.2.1   Producers of glass-ceramics  305

10.3   Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics  306

11.   Use of lithium in lubricating grease  309

11.1   Types of lubricating grease  309

11.2   Production of grease  311

11.2.1   Producers of lithium grease  314

11.3   Consumption of lithium greases  317

11.4   Consumption of lithium in greases  320

11.4.1   Outlook for demand for lithium in greases  321

12.   Use of lithium in glass  323

12.1   Use of lithium in glass  323

12.2   Production and consumption of glass  325

12.2.1   Container glass  326

12.2.2   Fibreglass  329

12.2.3   Speciality glass  330

12.3   Consumption of lithium in glass  330

12.3.1   Outlook for demand for lithium in glass  331

13.   Use of lithium in metallurgical powders  333

13.1   Continuous casting  333

13.1.1   Producers of continuous casting mould powders  334

13.1.2   Continually cast steel production  334

13.1.3   Consumption of continuous casting mould powders  335

13.1.4   Consumption of lithium in continuous casting mould powders  335

13.2   Traditional metal casting  337

13.3   Outlook for demand for lithium in casting powders  337

14.   Use of lithium in polymers  338

14.1   Types of polymers  338

14.2   Production of polymers  340

14.2.1   Producers of polymers  342

14.3   Consumption of polymers  344

14.4   Consumption of lithium in polymers  348

14.4.1   Outlook for lithium demand in polymers  348

15.   Use of lithium in air treatment  350

15.1   Absorption chillers  350

15.1.1   Production of absorption chillers  351

15.1.2   Producers of adsorption chillers  352

15.1.3   Producers of lithium bromide for absorption chillers  354

15.1.4   Consumption of lithium in absorption chillers  356

15.2  Dehumidification  357

15.2.1   Production of desiccant dehumidification systems  358

15.2.2   Producers of desiccant dehumidification systems  358

15.2.3   Consumption of lithium in desiccant dehumidifiers  359

15.3   Air purification  359

15.5   Outlook for demand for lithium in air treatment  360

16.   Use of lithium in primary batteries  362

16.1   Types of primary batteries  362

16.2   Production of lithium primary batteries  365

16.2.1   Producers of lithium primary batteries  367

16.3   Trade in primary batteries  369

16.4   Production of primary lithium battery materials  370

16.4.1   Producers of lithium primary battery anodes  371

16.5   Consumption of lithium primary batteries  373

16.5.1   Outlook for primary lithium battery consumption  374

16.6   Consumption of lithium in primary batteries  374

16.6.1   Outlook for demand for lithium in primary batteries  377

17.   Use of lithium in aluminium smelting  378

17.1   Process of aluminium smelting  378

17.2   Consumers of lithium in aluminium smelting  380

17.3   Consumption of lithium in aluminium smelting  382

17.3.1  Outlook for lithium demand in aluminium smelting  383

18.   Minor end-uses for lithium  385

18.1   Sanitization  385

18.2   Organic synthesis  386

18.3   Construction  388

18.4   Alkyd resins  388

18.5   Alloys  391

18.5.1   Aluminium-lithium alloy  391

18.5.1.1 Producers of aluminium-lithium alloys  394

18.5.1.2 Applications for aluminium-lithium alloys  395

18.5.1.3 Consumption of lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys  398

18.5.1.4 Outlook for demand for lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys  398

18.5.2   Magnesium-lithium alloy  400

18.6   Electronics  400

18.7   Analytical agents  402

18.8   Dyestuffs  402

18.9   Metallurgy  402

18.10   Photographic industry  402

18.11   Welding fluxes  402

18.12   Electrochromic glass  403

18.13Pharmaceuticals  403

18.13.1  Producers of lithium-based pharmaceuticals  404

18.13.2  Production and consumption of lithium-based pharmaceuticals  404

18.13.3  Consumption of lithium in pharmaceuticals  405

18.14   Speciality lithium inorganics  405

19.   Prices of lithium  408

19.1   Technical-grade lithium mineral prices  409

19.2   Chemical-grade spodumene prices  412

19.3   Technical-grade lithium carbonate prices  413

19.4   Battery-grade lithium carbonate  415

19.5   Technical-grade lithium hydroxide prices  416

19.6   Battery-grade lithium hydroxide prices  418

19.7   Lithium chloride prices  419

19.8  Lithium metal prices  420

19.9   Outlook for lithium prices  421

19.9.1   Technical-grade lithium carbonate prices  421

19.9.2   Battery-grade lithium carbonate prices  424

19.9.3   Technical-grade lithium mineral prices  425

19.9.4   Chemical-grade spodumene prices  425

19.9.5   Lithium hydroxide prices  426

List of Tables

                                                                        Page

Table 1: World: Forecast nominal and real prices for technical-grade lithium
carbonate, 2012 to 2017   8

Table 2: Properties of lithium  10

Table 3: Significant lithium minerals  11

Table 4: Major lithium bearing smectite group members  12

Table 5: Brine concentrations at selected deposits  13

Table 6: Lithium reserves by country   15

Table 7: Composition of standard lithium concentrates   22

Table 8: Specifications for lithium carbonate produced by SQM and Rockwood
Lithium   28

Table 9: Specifications for lithium carbonate produced by other suppliers  
28

Table 10: Battery grade lithium hydroxide product specifications of major
producers   29

Table 11: Production of lithium by country and company, 2005 to 2012   35

Table 12: Capacity and production of lithium minerals by company, 2011 to 2012
  39

Table 13: Capacity and production of lithium compounds from brine-based
producers, 2011 to 2012   40

Table 14: Capacity and production of lithium mineral converters, 2011 to 2012
  42

Table 15: Production of lithium compounds from minerals, 2005 to 2012   43

Table 16: Planned expansions as reported by existing lithium mineral producers
to 2017   46

Table 17: Potential lithium mineral producers to 2017   47

Table 18: Planned expansions by existing lithium brine producers to 2017  
49

Table 19: Potential new lithium brine projects to 2017   50

Table 20: Planned expansions to production capacity for existing and potential
mineral conversion plants   51

Table 21: Afghanistan: Spodumene bearing pegmatites identified in Nuristan,
Badakhshan, Nangarhar, Lagman and Uruzgan provinces  55

Table 22: Argentina: Exports of lithium carbonate, 2004 to 2012   57

Table 23: Argentina: Exports of lithium chloride, 2004 to 2012   58

Table 24:FMC: Brine reserves at the Salar del Hombre Muerto  58

Table 25: FMC: Production and value of lithium carbonate and chloride at the
Salta plant, Argentina 2005 to 2012   59

Table 26: ADY Resources: Salar del Rincón reserve estimation, 2007  60

Table 27: Lithium Americas: Lithium and potash resource estimation for the
Cauchari-Olaroz property, July 2012  61

Table 28: Lithium Americas: Lithium and potash reserve estimation for the
Cauchari-Olaroz property, July 2012  61

Table 29: Lithium Americas: Estimated capital costs for Lithium carbonate
production at the Cauchari-Olaroz project, July 2012  63

Table 30: Lithium Americas: Estimated operating costs for Cauchari-Olaroz
project, July 2012  65

Table 31: Galaxy Resources: Resource estimation for the Sal de Vida project,
January 2012  66

Table 32: Galaxy Resources: Reserve estimate for the Sal de Vida project,
April 2013   67

Table 33: Galaxy Resources: Estimated capital costs for Sal de Vida project,
October 2011   68

Table 34: Orocobre: Agreements between Borax Argentina and other lithium
companies  70

Table 35: Orocobre: Resource estimation for the Salar de Olaroz project, May
2011  71

Table 36: Orocobre: Assay results of first battery grade lithium carbonate
product from the Orocobre pilot plant  72

Table 37: Orocobre: Capital costs for 16,400tpy LCE operation at the Salar de
Olaroz, May 2011   73

Table 38: Orocobre: Operating costs for battery grade lithium carbonate for
the Salar de Olaroz, May 2011  73

Table 39: Orocobre: Resource estimation for the Salinas Grande project, April
2012  74

Table 40: Orocobre: Averaged assay results from pit sampling of brine at the
Guayatoyoc project  75

Table 41: Orocobre: Maiden resource estimation for the Salar de Cauchari
project, October 2012  75

Table 42: Rodinia Lithium: Salar de Diablillos resource estimation, March 2011
 76

Table 43: Rodinia Lithium: Estimated capital costs for the Salar de Diablillos
project  77

Table 44: Rodinia Lithium: Estimated operating costs for the Salar de
Diablillos project  77

Table 45: Rodinia Lithium: Other Argentine lithium projects  78

Table 46: Australia: Exports of mineral substances NES (excl. natural
micaceous iron oxides) 2005 to 2012   81

Table 47: Australia: Unit value of mineral substances NES (excl. natural
micaeous iron oxides) 2005 to 2011   81

Table 48: Talison Lithium: Resource estimation for the Greenbushes deposit,
December 2012  83

Table 49: Talison Lithium: Lithium mineral reserve estimation for the
Greenbushes deposit, December 2012  83

Table 50: Talison Lithium: Li, K and Na content of brines, Salares 7 project
saline lakes 1998, (ppm)  84

Table 51: Talison Lithium: Li, K and Na content of brines, Salares 7 project
saline lakes 2009, (ppm)  84

Table 52: Talison Lithium: Production and sales of lithium mineral
concentrates and ores, 2005 to 2011   85

Table 53: Talison Lithium: Standard lithium mineral concentrate product
specifications  87

Table 54: Galaxy Resources: Mount Cattlin mineral resource estimate, February
2011  89

Table 55: Galaxy Resources: Mount Cattlin mineral reserve estimate, December
2011  89

Table 56: Galaxy Resources: James Bay mineral resource estimate, November 2010
 89

Table 57: Galaxy Resources: Mt. Cattlin mine and plant production, Q3 2010 -
Q4 2011  90

Table 58: Reed Resources : Mt Marion resource estimation, July 2011  91

Table 59: Altura: Mineral resource estimation for the Pilgangoora lithium
project, October 2012  92

Table 60: Belgium: Trade is lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012   95

Table 61: Belgium: Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012   96

Table 62: Salars and Lagunas in Bolivia identified by Gerencia Nacional de
Recursos Evaporíticos  97

Table 63: Results of sampling campaign by Université de Liegé and Universidad
Tecnica de Oruro at the Salar de Coipasa, 2002  99

Table 64: Assay data for brines intercepted during drilling at the Pastos
Grandes Salar, August 2011  100

Table 65: Brazil: Lithium resource estimation by mineral type, 2009  101

Table 66: Brazil: Trade in lithium chemicals and concentrates, 2004 to 2011 
 102

Table 67: CBL: Production of lithium concentrates and lithium salts, 2005 to
2011  102

Table 68: Arqueana: Production of lithium concentrates, 2008 to 2011  103

Table 69: Canada: Resources estimations for Canadian lithium projects  106

Table 70: Canada: Imports and exports of lithium compounds 2005 to 2012  
108

Table 71: TANCO: Spodumene concentrate production 2005 to 2011   109

Table 72: Canada Lithium: Resource estimation for the Quebec Lithium project,
December 2011  109

Table 73: Canada Lithium: Reserve estimation for the Quebec Lithium project,
December 2011  110

Table 74: Canada Lithium: Estimated capital expenditure for Quebec Lithium
project (inc.LiOH and Na2SO4 plant costs), October 2012  111

Table 75 :Canada Lithium: Estimated operating expenditure for Quebec Lithium
project, October 2012  111

Table 76: Nemaska Lithium: Resource estimation for the Whabouchi project, June
2011  113

Table 77: Nemaska Lithium: Reserve estimation for the Whabouchi project,
October 2012  113

Table 78: Avalon Rare Metals: Separation Rapids NI 43-101 resource and reserve
estimation, 1999  116

Table 79: Perilya Ltd: Mineral resource estimation for Moblan deposit, May
2011  117

Table 80: Rock Tech Lithium: Structure of the Georgia Lake project, November
2011  118

Table 81: Rock Tech Lithium: Updated mineral resource estimation for Georgia
Lake project, July 2012  119

Table 82: Glen Eagle: Resource estimation for Authier lithium property,
January 2012  121

Table 83: Canada: Lithium exploration projects in Canada with uncompleted
scoping studies or PFS in October 2012  122

Table 84: Chile: Lithium carbonate, chloride and hydroxide production, 2004 to
2011   128

Table 85: Chile: Special operating licence bidders for the September 2012
auction  129

Table 86: SQM: Majority shareholders of SQM as of December 31st 2011  130

Table 87: SQM: Reserves within brines at the Salar de Atacama project  131

Table 88: SQM: Production, revenue and value per tonne of lithium compounds,
2003 to 2012  132

Table 89: SQM: Specifications for lithium carbonate   133

Table 90: SQM: Specifications for lithium hydroxide   134

Table 91: RWL: Gross tonnage, value and unit value of lithium carbonate
exports, 2006 to 2012  137

Table 92: RWL: Gross tonnage, value and unit value of lithium chloride
exports, 2006 to 2012  138

Table 93: Li3 Energy: Resource estimation for the Maricunga property, April
2012  140

Table 94: Chile: Exports of lithium carbonate by destination, 2004 to 2011 
144

Table 95: Chile: Lithium carbonate export volume, value and unit price by
company, 2005 to 2011  144

Table 96: Chile: Lithium chloride exports by destination, 2004 to 2012  145

Table 97: Chile: Lithium hydroxide exports by destination, 2004 to 2012  146

Table 98: China : Estimated resources and reserves of both lithium mineral and
brine operations and projects  148

Table 99: China: Production of lithium, 2003 to 2012  149

Table 100: China: Producers of lithium minerals, 2011 to 2012  151

Table 101: China: Production and capacity of Chinese lithium brine operations,
2011  152

Table 102: China: Mineral conversion plant production and production capacity,
2012  154

Table 103: China: Producers of battery grade lithium metal, 2012  154

Table 104: China: Imports and exports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012  
155

Table 105: China: Imports and exports of lithium chloride, 2005 to 2012  
156

Table 106: China: Imports and exports of lithium hydroxide, 2005 to 2012  
157

Table 107: China: Imports and exports of lithium oxide, 2005 to 2012   157

Table 108: Tibet Lithium New Technology Development: Lithium production, 2010
to 2012  158

Table 109: Qinghai CITIC: Lithium carbonate production, 2008 to 2012   160

Table 110: Dangxiongcuo reserve estimation from 2006 qualifying report  163

Table 111: Jiangxi Western Resources: Lithium Production, 2010  167

Table 112: Sichuan Tianqi: Production and sales of lithium products, 2010 to
2011   169

Table 113: Galaxy Resources: Battery grade lithium carbonate chemical
specifications  172

Table 114: KeliberOy: Claims, reservation and mining concessions for lithium
projects held by Keliber in Finland, 2012  181

Table 115: France: Imports and exports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012  
183

Table 116: France: Imports and exports of lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to
2012   184

Table 117: Germany: Imports and exports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012  
184

Table 118: India: Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxides, 2005 to 2012   187

Table 119: India: Trade in lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012   187

Table 120: India: Producers of lithium chemicals  188

Table 121: Japan: Trade in lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012   190

Table 122: Japan: Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012   191

Table 123: Mexico: LitioMex S.A. concessions and resource estimations  194

Table 124: Namibia: Production of lithium minerals, 1990 to 1998   197

Table 125: Netherlands: Trade in lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012   198

Table 126: Netherlands: Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012  
199

Table 127: SociedadMineira de Pegmatites: Production of Lithium, 2004 to 2012
  200

Table 128: Russia: Deposits of lithium  201

Table 129: Russia: Imports of lithium carbonate, 2002 to 2012   204

Table 130: Russia: Exports of lithium hydroxide, 2002 to 2012   204

Table 131: Russia: Imports of lithium hydroxide, 2002 to 2012   205

Table 132: South Korea: Trade in lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012   207

Table 133: South Korea: Trade in lithium hydroxide, 2005 to 2012   207

Table 134: Spain: Imports of lithium compounds, 2005 to 2012   208

Table 135: Minera Del Duero: Production of lepidolite in Spain, 2003 to 2011 
 208

Table 136: Inferred mineral resource estimation for the Doade-Presquerias
project, October 2011  209

Table 137: Taiwan: Imports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012   210

Table 138: UK: Imports of lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxides and oxides
2005 to 2012   211

Table 139: USA: Imports and exports of lithium carbonate 2005 to 2012   213

Table 140: USA: Imports and exports of lithium oxide and hydroxide 2005 to
2012   214

Table 141: FMC: Product range  218

Table 142: WLC: Resource estimation for the Kings Valley project, January 2012
 219

Table 143: WLC: Reserve estimation for the Kings Valley project, December 2011
 220

Table 144: WLC: Estimated operating and capital costs for 'Case 1' and 'Case
2' scenarios at the Kings Valley project.  221

Table 145: USA: Lithium exploration projects yet to reach scoping study or PFS
stage in development  224

Table 146: Zimbabwe: South African imports of mineral substances from
Zimbabwe, 2005 to 2012   227

Table 147: Bikita Minerals: Mine production and lithium content 2003 to 2011 
228

Table 148: World: Total exports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012   230

Table 149: World: Total imports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012   232

Table 150: World: Total exports of lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012 
 234

Table 151: World: Total imports of lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012 
 236

Table 152: World: Major importers and exporters of lithium chloride, 2005 to
2012   237

Table 153: World: Exports of lithium minerals by major lithium mineral
producing nations (excl. China), 2005 to 2012   238

Table 154: Chile: Exports of lithium chloride brine1 by SQM to China, 2005 to
2012   238

Table 155: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2002, 2007 and 2012 
240

Table 156: World: Estimated consumption of lithium by country/region, 2002,
2007 and 2012   244

Table 157: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, by product, 2012  246

Table 158: World: Forecast consumption of lithium by end-use, 2012 to 2017  
248

Table 159: Japan: Producers of lithium-ion battery cathode materials, 2012 
265

Table 160: South Korea: Producers of lithium-ion battery cathode materials,
2012  265

Table 161: China: Producers of lithium-ion battery cathode materials, 2012 
266

Table 162: World: Producers of lithium salts for electrolytes, 2012  267

Table 163: World: Lithium battery consumption in 3C products, 2012  269

Table 164: World: Lithium battery consumption in power devices and motive
power, 2012  271

Table 165: World: Lithium battery consumption in heavy duty applications, 2012
 272

Table 166: World: Lithium battery consumption in transport applications, 2012
 274

Table 167: World: Lithium consumption in rechargeable lithium batteries
end-use, 2012  275

Table 168: World: Lithium consumption in NiMH and NiCd batteries, 2012  275

Table 169: World: Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries by type,
2007 to 2012   277

Table 170: Japan: Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries, 2007 to
2012   277

Table 171: World: Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries by country,
2007 to 2012   278

Table 172: World: Rechargeable lithium battery demand by market, 2012 and 2017
 278

Table 173: World: Comparison of EV production estimates in 2017 by industry
consultant  280

Table 174: World: Forecast rechargeable battery consumption in EVs, 2017 
281

Table 175: World: Lithium consumption in rechargeable lithium batteries by
end-use, 2017  281

Table 176: World: Forecast demand for lithium in rechargeable lithium
batteries, 2012 to 2017   282

Table 177: World: Forecast demand for lithium in rechargeable batteries by
battery type, 2012 to 2017   282

Table 178: World: Forecast demand for lithium in rechargeable batteries by
product type, 2007 to 2012   283

Table 179: Typical whiteware body compositions   285

Table 180: World: Production of ceramic tiles by leading country, 2007 to 2012
  287

Table 181: World: Consumption of ceramic tiles by leading countries, 2007 to
2011   289

Table 182: World: Leading ceramic tile manufacturing companies, 2010  290

Table 183: World: Leading sanitaryware manufacturing companies, 2010  292

Table 184: World: Consumption of lithium in ceramics, 2012  300

Table 185: World: Consumption of lithium in ceramics, 2007 to 2012   300

Table 186: World: Forecast demand for lithium in ceramics, 2012 to 2017  
301

Table 187: Glass-ceramic matrices  302

Table 188: Compositions of commercial glass-ceramics  303

Table 189: Japan: Consumption of lithium carbonate in glass-ceramics, 2007 to
2012   306

Table 190: World: Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics by end-use and
product type, 2012   307

Table 191: World: Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics, 2007 to 2012  
307

Table 192: World: Forecast demand for lithium in glass-ceramics, 2012 to 2017
  308

Table 193: Properties of commercial greases  311

Table 194: World: Producers of lubricating grease  315

Table 195: World: Forecast demand for lithium in greases, 2012 to 2017  322

Table 196: Typical batch compositions for glass by type   323

Table 197: Main sources of lithium used in glass  324

Table 198: EU: Production of glass by type, 1998 to 2012   328

Table 199: USA: Production of container glass, 1999 to 2008  328

Table 200: Typical chemical composition of types of textile-grade fibreglass 
 329

Table 201: World: Estimated consumption of lithium in glass, 2012   331

Table 202: World: Consumption of lithium in glass, 2007 to 2012   331

Table 203: World: Forecast demand for lithium in glass, 2012 to 2017   332

Table 204: World: Consumption of lithium in continuous casting mould powders,
2007 to 2012   336

Table 205: Japan: Consumption of lithium in fluxes, 2007 to 2012   336

Table 206: World: Forecast demand for lithium in casting powders, 2012 to 2017
  337

Table 207: Microstructure of different types of polybutadienes  339

Table 208: World: Producers of SSBR, BR and SBC, 2012  343

Table 209: World: Planned new/expanded SBR, BR and SBC plants  344

Table 210: World: Forecast demand for lithium in synthetic rubber and
thermoplastics, 2011 to 2017  349

Table 211: World: Capacity for lithium bromide production, end-2012   355

Table 212: Japan: Consumption of lithium bromide, 2007 to 2012  356

Table 213: World: Forecast demand for lithium in air treatment, 2012 to 2017 
361

Table 214: Characteristics of primary lithium batteries  363

Table 215: Japan: Production of primary batteries by type, 1998 to 2012  
367

Table 216: World: Trade in lithium primary batteries, 2007 to 2011   369

Table 217: Primary lithium batteries and their material compositions  371

Table 218: Specifications for battery-grade lithium metal   371

Table 219: World: Producers of battery-grade lithium metal, end-2012  372

Table 220: Japan: Consumption of lithium in primary lithium batteries, 2007 to
2012  375

Table 221: Japan: Unit consumption of lithium in primary batteries, 2007 to
2012  375

Table 222: World: Imports of battery-grade lithium metal, 2007 to 2012  376

Table 223: World: Forecast demand for lithium in primary batteries, 2012 to
2017  377

Table 224: Effects of additives and temperatures on properties of molten
cryolite  379

Table 225: World: Aluminium smelters using Söderberg technology, end-2012 
381

Table 226: World: Forecast demand for lithium in aluminium smelting, 2012 to
2017   384

Table 227: World: Consumption of lithium in other end-uses, 2007, 2012 and
2017   385

Table 228: Examples of uses for lithium in organic synthesis  387

Table 229: Physical properties of Al-Li alloys  392

Table 230: Chemical composition of Al-Li alloys   393

Table 231: Use of Al-Li alloys in selected aircraft  397

Table 232: World: Forecast demand for lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys,
2012 to 2017  399

Table 233: Properties of lithium niobate and lithium tantalite  401

Table 234: Applications for SAW components  401

Table 235: Applications for speciality inorganic lithium compounds  406

Table 236: Prices of lithium minerals, 2000-2013   410

Table 237: Comparison of prices for lithium minerals and carbonate, 2004 to
2012  411

Table 238: Comparison of prices for chemical-grade spodumene concentrate and
lithium carbonate, 2004 to 2012  412

Table 239: Comparison of technical- and battery- grade lithium carbonate
prices, 2004 to 2012   416

Table 240: Average values of exports/imports of lithium oxides and hydroxides
by leading exporting/importing country, 2004 to 2012   417

Table 241: Average values of exports of lithium chloride by leading producing
country, 2004 to 2012  420

Table 242: Average values of exports of lithium metal by leading producing
country, 2004 to 2012  421

Table 243: World: Forecast nominal and real prices for technical-grade lithium
carbonate, 2012 to 2017   423

Table 244: World: Forecast nominal prices for technical-grade lithium
carbonate and chemical-grade lithium minerals, 2012 to 2017   425

Table 245: World: Forecast nominal prices for technical-grade lithium
carbonate and technical-grade lithium hydroxide, 2012 to 2017   426

                               List of Figures

Figure 1: Lithium product flow chart and main end-uses, 2012   1

Figure 2: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2000 to 2012   2

Figure 3: Production of lithium by country, 2000 to 2012   4

Figure 4: Price history of lithium carbonate, 1990 to 2012  6

Figure 5: World: Forecast real prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate,
2012 to 2017   9

Figure 6: Overview of lithium production  16

Figure 7: Extraction and processing of brines from the Salar de Atacama, Chile
and Silver Peak, Nevada by Rockwood Lithium  18

Figure 8: Flow sheet showing the processing of brines at Salar de Carmen by
SQM  19

Figure 9: Simplified flow sheet of the Li SX™ method patented by Bateman
Lithium Projects  21

Figure 10: Simplified mineral concentrate production flow sheet for a typical
hard rock lithium operation  22

Figure 11: Simplified flow sheet for lithium carbonate production from
spodumene mineral concentrate using the acid-roast method  24

Figure 12: Simplified flow sheet for lithium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide
monohydrate production from spodumene mineral concentrate using the lime-roast
method  25

Figure 13: Simplified flow sheet for lithium carbonate production from
hectorite clay developed by Western Lithium  27

Figure 14: Mining and milling costs for hard rock lithium mineral
operations/projects  31

Figure 15: Lithium carbonate cash operating costs, 2012  32

Figure 16: Potential new producers production costs  33

Figure 17: World: Production of lithium by country, 2000 to 2012   34

Figure 18: Production of lithium from mineral and brine sources, 2005 to 2012
  37

Figure 19: Production of lithium minerals by company, 2012   38

Figure 20: Production of lithium from brines by country, 2005 to 2012   40

Figure 21: Planned production capacity and consumption for lithium, 2012 to
2017   45

Figure 22: Forecast production and consumption of lithium, 2012 to 2017   54

Figure 23: Pilot plant flow sheet developed for Lithium Americas at SGS
Mineral Services  62

Figure 24: Brazil: Production of Lithium products 2005 to 2010   101

Figure 25: SQM: Lithium sales by destination 2011, 2009, 2007 and 2005   135

Figure 26: SQM: Destination of lithium carbonate exports, 2006 to 2011   136

Figure 27: China: Location of mineral conversion and lithium chemical/metal
plants in China, 2012  153

Figure 28: Japan: Imports of lithium carbonate, hydroxide & oxide and combined
LCE, 2005 to 2012   191

Figure 29: World: Leading exporters of lithium carbonate, 2006, 2008, 2010 and
2012  231

Figure 30: World: Leading importers of lithium carbonate, 2006, 2008, 2010 and
2012  233

Figure 31: World: Leading exporters of lithium hydroxide and oxides, 2006,
2008, 2010 and 2012  235

Figure 32: World: Growth in consumption of lithium, 2000 to 2012  239

Figure 33: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2012  240

Figure 34: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2000 to 2012   241

Figure 35: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2000 to 2012   241

Figure 36: World: Estimated consumption of lithium by country/region, 2002,
2007 and 2012   244

Figure 37: World: Consumption of lithium by product, 2012   245

Figure 38: World: Consumption of lithium by type, 2000 to 2012   247

Figure 39: World: Historical and forecast consumption of lithium by end-use,
2007 to 2017   248

Figure 40: World: Forecast consumption of lithium by form, 2007, 2012 and 2017
  252

Figure 41: Specific energy and energy density of rechargeable batteries  253

Figure 42: Lithium-ion battery schematic  254

Figure 43: Lithium metal polymer battery schematic  256

Figure 44: Lithium-sulphur cell schematic  257

Figure 45: Lithium-air cell schematic  258

Figure 46: World: Production of rechargeable batteries1, 1995 to 2012   259

Figure 47: World: Production of rechargeable batteries1, 1995 to 2012   260

Figure 48: World: Rechargeable lithium battery production by country, 2000 to
2012   260

Figure 49: Lithium-ion battery materials value chain  263

Figure 50: World: Production of lithium cathode materials by type, 2000 to
2012  264

Figure 51: World: Market for rechargeable lithium batteries by end-use, 2002,
2007 and 2012   268

Figure 52: World: Market for rechargeable lithium batteries by end-use, 2012 
 269

Figure 53: World: Production of rechargeable batteries and consumption of
lithium, 2000 to 2012  276

Figure 54: World: Market for rechargeable lithium batteries by end-use, 2002
to 2017   279

Figure 55: World: Ceramic tile production by region, 2007 and 2012   288

Figure 56: World: Sanitaryware production by region/country, 2010  291

Figure 57: World: Production of tableware by country/region, 2008  293

Figure 58: USA: Shipments of cookware, bakeware and kitchenware, 2001 to 2010
 295

Figure 59: World: Shipments of white goods by region, 2000 to 2020  296

Figure 60: World: Year-on-year growth in construction spending and GDP, 2000
to 2017  298

Figure 61: World: Production of lubricating grease by additive type, 2011  
312

Figure 62: World: Production of lubricating grease by type, 2000 to 2012 
313

Figure 63: World: Production of lithium grease by region/country and by type,
2000 and 2011   314

Figure 64: World: Output of automobiles by region, 2000 to 2012  318

Figure 65: World: Deliveries of commercial aircraft, 2000 to 2012  318

Figure 66: World: Shipbuilding deliveries, 2000 to 2012  319

Figure 67: World: Relative industrial and transport output and lithium grease
production, 2002 to 2011  320

Figure 68: World: Production of grease and consumption of lithium, 2000 to
2012  321

Figure 69: World: Estimated production of glass by type, 2012  326

Figure 70: World: Production of container glass by region/country, 2012  326

Figure 71: World: Consumption of glass packaging by region, 2011  327

Figure 72: World: Production of continuously cast steel by region, 1998 to
2012   335

Figure 73: World: Capacity for synthetic rubber production by country/region,
2012  340

Figure 74: World: Capacity for BR, ESBR and SSBR rubber by country/region,
end-2011  341

Figure 75: World: SBC capacity by region/country, end-2010  341

Figure 76: World: Production of synthetic rubber by region, 1996 to 2011  
342

Figure 77: World: Consumption of synthetic rubber by type, 2012  345

Figure 78: World: consumption of BR by end-use, 2010  346

Figure 79: World: Consumption of SBC by region/country, 2010  347

Figure 80: Consumption of SBC by end-use, 2007  347

Figure 81: World: Production of absorption chillers, 2003 to 2012  352

Figure 82: World: Consumption of lithium bromide in air treatment, 2001 to
2012  356

Figure 83: Specific energy and energy density of primary batteries  362

Figure 84: Primary and secondary battery gravimetric energy density  365

Figure 85: World: Production of primary lithium batteries by country, 1998 to
2012   366

Figure 86: Primary lithium battery schematics  370

Figure 87: World: Demand for lithium metal in primary batteries, 2000 to 2012
 376

Figure 88: World: Aluminium output by type and lithium consumption, 2000 to
2012  383

Figure 89: World: Consumption of alkyd-based paints and coatings, 2010  390

Figure 90: Development of Al-Li alloys  392

Figure 91: World: Deliveries of commercial aircraft and lithium consumption,
2007 to 2019  399

Figure 92: Price history of lithium carbonate, 1990 to 2012  408

Figure 93: Compound annual prices of lithium minerals, 2000 to 2013   411

Figure 94: Prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 1999 to 2012   414

Figure 95: Prices for battery-grade lithium carbonate, 1999 to 2012   415

Figure 96: Comparison of lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate prices, 2000
to 2012   418

Figure 97: Japan: Quarterly average import value of lithium hydroxide from the
USA, 2008 to 2012   419

Figure 98: World: Forecast nominal prices for technical-grade lithium
carbonate, 2012 to 2017   423

Figure 99: World: Forecast real prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate,
2012 to 2017   424

For further information on this report, please contact Robert Baylis (
rbaylis@roskill.co.uk ). To be added to our press distribution list, please
contact Isobel Jarvis ( isobel@roskill.co.uk ).
 
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